US Media was Complicit in Afghanistan Abuse & Failure

In light of the United States’ decision to withdraw from Afghanistan, journalist Steve Coll’s podcast appearance from 2018 shows exactly why the U.S. was always doomed in Afghanistan. Ana Kasparian and Cenk Uygur discuss on The Young Turks. Watch LIVE weekdays 6-8 pm ET. http://youtube.com/theyoungturks/live

Costs of War: US, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Syria, etc

US BUDGETARY COSTS: $6.4 TRILLION

The vast economic impact of the post-9/11 wars in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Syria, and elsewhere is poorly understood by the US public and policymakers. This paper estimates the budgetary costs of war, including past expenditures and obligations to care for veterans of these wars throughout their lifetimes.

 

HUMAN COSTS: OVER 801,000

The number of people killed directly in the violence of the wars in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Syria, Yemen and elsewhere are approximated here. Several times as many civilians have died due to the reverberating effects of these wars. The methods of accounting are described in this paper.

PEOPLE DISPLACED: 37 MILLION

37 million people have been displaced by the post-9/11 wars in Afghanstan, Pakistan, Iraq, Syria, Libya, Yemen, Somalia and the Philippines.

Did the CONFEDERACY Have BETTER GENERALS?!?!?!

Checkmate, Lincolnites! Debunking Lost Cause myths – as well as more benign common misconceptions – about the military leadership of the Civil War. Did the South really have all the best battlefield talent? Was the key to Union victory a simple strategy of overwhelming the Confederate army with numbers and resources? Who was better at their job, Ulysses S. Grant or Robert E. Lee? I’d say watch and find out, but the answer is obviously Grant. Support Atun-Shei
Leave a Tip via Paypal ► https://www.paypal.me/atunsheifilms
Original Music by Dillon DeRosa ► http://dillonderosa.com/
REFERENCES~
[1] Andy Hall. “With One Hand Tied Behind its Back” (2013). Dead Confederates Blog https://deadconfederates.com/2013/11/…
[2] G.S. Boritt. Why the Confederacy Lost (1992). Oxford University Press, Page 39-40
[3] Richard E. Beringer. Why the South Lost the Civil War (1986). University of Georgia Press, Page 8-24
[4] Borritt, Page 24-30
[5] Charles Royster. The Destructive War: William Tecumseh Sherman, Stonewall Jackson, and the Americans (1991). Vintage Civil War Library, Page 76
[6] “Lincoln’s Unsent Letter to General Meade.” American Battlefield Trust https://www.battlefields.org/learn/pr…
[7] Eric J. Wittenberg. “A Civil War Witch Hunt: George Gordon Meade, The Retreat from Gettysburg, and the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War” (2015). Emerging Civil War Blog http://emergingcivilwar.com/2015/07/0…
[8] Report of the Joint Select Committee Appointed to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States, so Far as Regards the Execution of Laws, and the Safety of the Lives and Property of the Citizens of the United States and Testimony Taken (1872). https://quod.lib.umich.edu/m/moa/ACA4…
[9] Andy Hall. “Nathan Bedford Forrest Joins the Kl@n” (2011). Dead Confederates Blog https://deadconfederates.com/2011/12/…
[10] Andy Hall. “Confederate Veterans on Forrest: ‘Unworthy of a Southern Gentleman’ (2013). Dead Confederates Blog https://deadconfederates.com/2013/08/…
[11] Edward Bonekemper. Ulysses S. Grant: A Victor, Not a Butcher (2004). Regnery History, Page 89-92
[12] Mary Boykin Chestnut. A Diary of Dixie (1905). D. Appleton and Company, Page 350 [13] Ernest B. Ferguson. “Catching Up With ‘Old Slow Trot’” (2007). Smithsonian Magazine https://www.smithsonianmag.com/histor…
[14] Bonekemper, Page xii
[15] Bonekemper, Page 308-309
[16] Bonekemper, Page 192-193
[17] Bonekemper, Page 201-203
[18] Justin D. Murphy. American Civil War: Interpreting Conflict Through Primary Documents, Vol. II (2019). ABC-CLIO, Page 331
[19] Bonekemper, Page 121 & 243-245
[20] Elizabeth Brown Pryor. Reading the Man: A Portrait of Robert E. Lee Through his Private Letters (2008) Penguin Books, Page 335
[21] Sean Kane. Myths and Misunderstandings: Grant as a Slaveholder (2017). The American Civil War Museum https://acwm.org/blog/myths-misunders…
[22] “Letter from Robert E. Lee to Mary Randolph Custis Lee (December 27, 1856).” Encylopedia Virginia https://encyclopediavirginia.org/entr…
[23] Pryor, Page 144-150
[24] “Ulysses S. Grant and General Orders No. 11” National Park Service https://www.nps.gov/articles/000/ulys…

SHOW LESS

Jimmy Carter: US has only enjoyed 16 years of peace in its 242-year history

“Since 1979, do you know how many times China has been at war with anybody?” Carter asked. “None. And we have stayed at war.” The U.S., he noted, has only enjoyed 16 years of peace in its 242-year history, making the country “the most warlike nation in the history of the world,” Carter said. This is, he said, because of America’s tendency to force other nations to “adopt our American principles.”

List of wars involving the United States

18th-century wars

Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result for the United States and its Allies
American Revolutionary War
(1775–1783)Location: Eastern North AmericaSouthern North AmericaGibraltarIndiaCaribbean Sea, and the Atlantic

The Battle of Long Island, August 27, 1776

 United States
Kingdom of France France

Spain Spanish Empire

 Iroquois

Watauga Association
Catawba
 Lenape
 Choctaw


 Dutch Republic


 Mysore

 Great Britain
 Loyalists
Holy Roman Empire German Auxiliaries
 Iroquois

 Cherokee

US-allied victory
Cherokee–American wars
(1776–1795)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Old Southwest

Abduction of Daniel Boone’s daughter by the Cherokee

 United States
 Choctaw
 Cherokee US-allied victory
Northwest Indian War
(1785–1793)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Northwest Territory

 United States
 Chickasaw
 Choctaw
Western Confederacy

List

Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain

US-allied victory
Quasi-War
(1798–1800)Location: Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean, the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean
 United StatesCo-belligerent:
 Great Britain
France France Convention of 1800
  • Peaceful cessation of Franco-American alliance
  • End of French privateer attacks on American shipping
  • American neutrality and renunciation of claims by France

19th-century wars[edit]

Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result for the United States and its Allies
First Barbary War
(1801–1805)Part of the Barbary Wars

Location: Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Tripoli

Lieutenant Presley O’Bannon at Derna, April 1805

 United States[2]
 Sweden[2]
 Sicily[2]
 Malta[2]
 Portugal[2]
 Morocco[2]
border=no Tripolitania[3]
Morocco Morocco[3]
US-allied victory
Tecumseh’s War
(1811)Part of the American Indian Wars and the War of 1812

Location: Northwest River Ohio

 United States Tecumseh’s Confederacy

List
US victory
War of 1812
(1812–1815)Location: Eastern and Central North America

General Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his makeshift defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders, by painter Edward Percy Moran in 1910.

 United States
 Choctaw Nation
 Cherokee Nation
Creek Allies
 United Kingdom

Tecumseh’s Confederacy

List

Spain Spain (1814)

Inconclusive/Other Result
Creek War
(1813–1814)Part of the American Indian Wars and the War of 1812

Location: Southern United States

 United States
Lower Creeks
 Cherokee Nation
 Choctaw Nation
Red Stick Creek US-allied victory
Second Barbary War
(1815)Part of the Barbary Wars

Location: Mediterranean Sea and the Barbary States

Decatur’s squadron off Algiers

 United States Flag of Ottoman Algiers.svg Deylik of Algiers US victory
First Seminole War
(1817–1818)Part of the Seminole Wars and the American Indian Wars

Location: PensacolaSpanish Florida

Barracks and tents at Fort Brooke near Tampa Bay

 United States Seminole

Spain Spanish Florida

US victory
Arikara War
(1823)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Missouri River

An Arikara warrior

 United StatesSioux Arikara Inconclusive/Other Result
  • White Peace treaty agreed by US Col Leavenworth[4]
Winnebago War
(1827)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Illinois and Michigan Territory

 United States
 Choctaw Nation
Prairie La Crosse Ho-Chunks
with a few allies
US-allied victory
  • Ho-Chunks cede lead mining region to the United States
Black Hawk War
(1832)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Illinois and Michigan Territory

Native women and children fleeing the Battle of Bad Axe

 United States
Ho-Chunk
Menominee
 Dakota
Potawatomi
Black Hawk’s British Band
Ho-Chunk and Potawatomi allies
US-allied victory
Texas Revolution
(1835–1836)Location: Texas

Fall of the Alamo

 Republic of Texas

 United States

  • Out of the Texan soldiers serving from January through March 1836, 78% had arrived from the United States after October 2, 1835.[Note 1][5]

 Mexican Republic Texan victory
  • The Republic of Texas gains its independence.
  • Texas is annexed into the United States in 1845.
Second Seminole War
(1835–1842)Part of the Seminole Wars and the American Indian Wars

Location: FloridaUnited States

U.S. Marines search for Seminoles in the Everglades

 United States Seminole US victory
Mexican–American War
(1846–1848)Location: TexasNew MexicoCalifornia and Mexico

2nd Dragoons charge the enemy at the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, 1846

 United States
 California Republic
 Mexico US-allied victory
Cayuse War
(1847–1855)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Oregon

The Whitman Massacre.

 United States Cayuse US victory
  • Cayuse reduced in numbers and forced to cede most of their lands
Apache Wars
(1851–1900)Part of the Texas–Indian wars and the American Indian Wars

Location: Southwestern United States

U.S. Cavalry dash for cover while fighting Apaches, by F. Remington

 United States Apache
Ute
Yavapai
US victory
Bleeding Kansas
(1854–1861)Location: Kansas and Missouri
Anti-slavery settlers
(Free-Staters)
Pro-slavery settlers (Border Ruffians) Free-Stater victory.
  • Kansas admitted as a free state on January 29, 1861.
Puget Sound War
(1855–1856)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Washington

 United States
Snoqualmie
Nisqually
Muckleshoot
Puyallup
Klickitat
Haida
Tlingit
US victory
Rogue River Wars
(1855–1856)Location: Rogue Valley
 United States Rogue River people US victory
  • Indians relocated to Siletz, Grand Ronde and Coast Reservations
Third Seminole War
(1855–1858)Part of the Seminole Wars and the American Indian Wars

Location: PensacolaFlorida

 United States Seminole US victory
  • By late 1850s, most Seminoles forced to leave their land; a few hundred remain deep in the Everglades on land unwanted by white settlers
Yakima War
(1855–1858)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Washington Territory

Seattleites evacuate to the town blockhouse as USS Decatur opens fire on advancing tribal forces.

 United States
Snoqualmie
Yakama
Walla Walla tribe
Umatilla tribe
Nez Perce tribe
Cayuse tribe
US victory
Second Opium War
(1856–1859)Part of the Opium Wars

Location: China

Palikao’s bridge, on the evening of the battle, by Émile Bayard

United Kingdom British Empire
France French Empire
 United States
 China US victory
Utah War
(1857–1858)Part of the Mormon wars

Location: Utah Territory and Wyoming

 United States Deseret/Utah Mormons (Nauvoo Legion) Inconclusive/Other Result
  • Resolution through negotiation
  • Brigham Young replaced as governor of the territory
  • Full amnesty for charges of sedition and treason issued to the citizens of Utah Territory by President James Buchanan on the condition that they accept American Federal authority
Navajo Wars
(1858–1866)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: New Mexico

 United States Navajo Nation US victory
John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry
(1859)Part of pre-Civil War conflicts

Location: West Virginia

Harper’s Weekly illustration of U.S. Marines attacking John Brown’s “Fort” Teresa Baine

 United States Abolitionist Insurgents US victory
First and Second Cortina War
(1859–1861)Location: Texas and Mexico
United States United States

Confederate States of America Confederate States


 Mexico

Mexico Cortinista bandits US-allied victory
Paiute War
(1860)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Pyramid LakeNevada

 United States Paiute
Shoshone
Bannock
US victory
American Civil War
(1861–1865)Location: Southern United StatesIndian TerritoryNortheastern United StatesWestern United StatesAtlantic Ocean

The Battle of Antietam, by Kurz & Allison.

 United States  Confederate States
 Cherokee Nation
 Choctaw Nation
 Chickasaw Nation
 Muskogee Nation
 Seminole Nation
 Comanche Nation
US victory
Yavapai Wars
(1861–1875)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Arizona

 United States Yavapai
Apache
Yuma
Mohave
US victory
Dakota War of 1862
(1862)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Minnesota and Dakota

The Siege of New Ulm, Minnesota on August 19, 1862

 United States  Dakota Sioux US victory
Colorado War
(1863–1865)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: ColoradoWyoming, and Nebraska

 United States  Cheyenne
 Arapaho
 Sioux
Inconclusive/Other Result
Snake War
(1864–1868)Part of the American Indian Wars

Locations: OregonNevadaCalifornia, and Idaho

 United States Paiute
Bannock
Shoshone
US victory
Powder River War
(1865)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Powder River State

 United States  Sioux
 Cheyenne
 Arapaho
Inconclusive
Red Cloud’s War
(1866–1868)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Powder River State

The Fetterman Massacre

 United States
 Crow Nation
 Lakota
 Cheyenne
 Arapaho
Lakota-allied victory
Comanche Campaign
(1867–1875)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Western United States

Battle of Beecher Island. One soldier and three horses have fallen, while others continue to wage the battle.

 United States  Cheyenne
 Arapaho
 Comanche
Kiowa
US victory
Modoc War
(1872–1873)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: California and Oregon

Engraving of soldiers recovering the bodies of the slain May 3, 1873.

 United States  Modoc US victory
Red River War
(1874–1875)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Texas

 United States  Cheyenne
 Arapaho
 Comanche
Kiowa
US victory
  • End to the Texas-Indian Wars
Las Cuevas War
(1875)Location: Texas and Mexico

Texan soldiers.

 United States Mexican bandits US victory
  • Cattle returned to Texas
Great Sioux War of 1876
(1876–1877)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: MontanaDakota and Wyoming

Custer’s last stand at Little Bighorn.

 United States  Lakota
 Dakota Sioux
 Northern Cheyenne
 Arapaho
US victory
  • Legal control of Powder River Country ceded to the United States
Buffalo Hunters’ War
(1876–1877)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Texas and Oklahoma

 United States  Comanche
Apache
US victory
Nez Perce War
(1877)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: OregonIdahoWyoming, and Montana

Chief Joseph’s band in the Battle of Bear Paw Mountain

 United States Nez Perce
Palouse
US victory
Bannock War
(1878)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: IdahoOregon, and Wyoming

 United States Bannock
Shoshone
Paiute
US victory
Cheyenne War
(1878–1879)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: OklahomaKansasNebraskaSouth Dakota and Montana

Aftermath of the Battle of “The Pit.”

 United States  Cheyenne US victory
Sheepeater Indian War
(1879)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Idaho

 United States Shoshone US victory
Victorio’s War
(1879–1881)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Mexico

 United States
 Mexico
Apache US-allied victory
White River War
(1879–1880)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Colorado

 United States Ute US victory
Pine Ridge Campaign
(1890–1891)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: South Dakota

Mass grave for the dead Lakota after the conflict at Wounded Knee Creek.

 United States  Sioux US victory
Garza Revolution
(1891–1893)Location: Texas and Mexico

3rd Cavalry Troopers searching a suspected Revolutionist, 1892

 Mexico
 United States
Garzistas US-allied victory
Yaqui Wars
(1896–1918)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Arizona and Mexico

10th Cavalry soldiers holding Yaqui prisoners at their camp in Bear Valley, January 9, 1918.

 United States
 Mexico
Flag of the Yaqui tribe.png Yaqui
Pima
Opata
US-allied victory
Second Samoan Civil War
(1898–1899)Location: Samoa

Samoan warriors and American servicemen during the Siege of Apia in March 1899.

Samoa
 United States
Mataafans
 Germany
Inconclusive/Other Result
Spanish–American War
(1898)Location: CubaPuerto RicoPhilippines and Guam

Teddy Roosevelt and the “Rough Riders” charge Spanish positions during the Battle of San Juan Hill.

 United States
 Cuban Revolutionaries
 Filipino Revolutionaries
Spain Spain US-allied victory
Philippine–American War
(1899–1902)Location: Philippines

Kurz & Allison print of the Battle of Quingua.

1899–1902
 United States

1902-1906
 United States

1899–1902
 Philippine Republic

Limited Foreign Support:
 Empire of Japan


1902-1906
Flag of the Katagalugan Republic.svg Tagalog Republic

US victory
Moro Rebellion
(1899–1913)Location: Philippines

The 8th Infantry Regiment defeat the Moros in the four-day battle of Bagsak Mountain on Jolo Island in the Philippines.

 United States  Moro
 Remnants of the Sulu Sultanate
US victory
Boxer Rebellion
(1899–1901)Location: China

Corporal Titus, of the 14th Infantry Regiment, scaling the walls of Peking.

British Empire United Kingdom
 Russia
 Japan
France France
 United States
 Germany
 Italy
 Austria-Hungary
 Righteous Harmony Society (Boxers)
 China
US-allied victory
  • Signing of the Boxer Protocol
  • Provisions for foreign troops to be stationed in Beijing

20th-century wars[edit]

Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result for the United States and its Allies
Crazy Snake Rebellion
(1909)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Oklahoma

Creek prisoners of war.

 United States Creek US victory
Border War
(1910–1919)Part of the Mexican Revolution

Location: Mexico–United States border

American troops of the 16th Infantry Regiment rest for the night on May 27, 1916

 United States  Mexico
 Germany
US victory
Negro Rebellion
(1912)Part of the Banana Wars

Location: Cuba

USS Mississippi in Cuba

Cuba Cuba
 United States
Cuba Cuban PIC US-allied victory
  • Dissolution of the PIC
Occupation of Nicaragua
(1912–1933)Part of the Banana Wars

Location: Nicaragua

US Marines holding a captured Sandinista flag.

 United States
 Nicaragua
Flag of Nicaragua.svg Nicaraguan Liberals
Flag of Nicaragua.svg Sandinistas
US-allied victory
  • Nicaragua occupied until 1933
Bluff War
(1914–1915)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Utah and Colorado

Prisoners of the Bluff War in Thompson, Utah, waiting to board a train for their trial in Salt Lake City.

 United States Ute
Paiute
US victory
Occupation of Veracruz
(1914)Part of the Mexican Revolution

Location: Mexico

American ships at Veracruz

 United States  Mexico US victory
Occupation of Haiti
(1915–1934)Part of the Banana Wars

Location: Haiti

2nd Marine Regiment in Haiti

 United States
 Haiti
Haiti Haitian Rebels US-allied victory
Occupation of the Dominican Republic
(1916–1924)Part of the Banana Wars

Location: Dominican Republic

US Marines in the Occupation of the Dominican Republic.

 United States  Dominican Republic US victory
World War I
(1917–1918)Location: EuropeAfricaAsiaMiddle East, the Pacific Islands, and coast of North and South America

Two US troops pass by dead German soldiers on a battlefield.

 France
 British Empire

 Russia
 United States
Republic of China (1912–1949) China
 Italy
 Japan
 Serbia
 Montenegro
 Romania
 Belgium
 Greece
 Portugal
 Brazil

 Germany
 Austria-Hungary
 Ottoman Empire
 Bulgaria
US-allied victory
Russian Civil War
(1918–1920)Location: RussiaMongolia, and Iran

US troops march through Russia before the Battle of Romanovka.

Russia White Movement
 British Empire

 United States
France France
 Japan
 Czechoslovakia
 Greece
 Poland
 Romania
 Serbia
 Italy
Republic of China (1912–1949) China

 Russian SFSR
 Far Eastern Republic
 Latvian SSR
 Ukrainian SSR
 Commune of Estonia
 Mongolian Communists
Bolshevik victory
  • Allied withdrawal from Russia
  • Bolshevik victory over White Army
Last Indian Uprising
(1923)Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Utah

Ute and Paiute prisoners of war.

 United States Ute
Paiute
US victory
World War II
(1941–1945)Location: EuropePacific OceanAtlantic OceanSoutheast AsiaEast AsiaMiddle EastMediterraneanNorth AfricaOceaniaNorth and South America

U.S. Army Soldiers advancing at dawn in the cover of a M4 Sherman tank, during the Battle of Bougainville, 1944.

 Soviet Union
 United States
 United Kingdom
 China
 France
 Poland
 Canada
 Australia
 New Zealand
 India
 South Africa
 Yugoslavia
 Greece
 Denmark
 Norway
 Netherlands
 Belgium
 Luxembourg
 Czechoslovakia
 Brazil
 Mexico
 Chile
 Peru
 Ethiopia
 Mongolia
 Philippines
North Vietnam Viet Minh
Korea KLA
 Germany
 Japan
 Italy
 Hungary
 Romania
 Bulgaria
 Slovakia
 Croatia
 Albania
 Finland
 Thailand
 Manchukuo
 Mengjiang
US-allied victory
Operation Beleaguer
(1945-1949)Location: Hopeh and Shantung ProvincesChina

Marines in Tsingtao during Operation Beleaguer.

 United States China Communist Party of China US Victory
  • Occupation of Hopeh and Shantung provinces
  • Japanese and Koreans repatriated
  • American and other foreign nationals evacuated
Korean War
(1950–1953)Part of the Cold War

Location: Korea

American soldiers in the Korean War with the Browning M1919A6 LMG.

 South Korea
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Australia
 Belgium
 Canada
 France
 Philippines
 Colombia
 Ethiopia
 Greece
 Luxembourg
 Netherlands
 New Zealand
 Spain
 South Africa
 Thailand
 Turkey
 North Korea
 China
 Soviet Union
Inconclusive/Other Result
  • Korean Armistice Agreement
  • North Korean invasion of South Korea repelled
  • Subsequent United Nations invasion of North Korea repelled
  • Subsequent Chinese-North Korean invasion of South Korea repelled
Lebanon Crisis
(1958)Location: Lebanon

US Marine sits in a foxhole and points his machine gun toward Beirut.

 Lebanon
 United States
Lebanon Lebanese Opposition: US-allied victory
Vietnam War
(1955–1964[a], 1965–1973[b], 1974–1975[c])Part of the Cold War and Indochina Wars

Location: VietnamCambodia, and Laos

1st Cavalry Division, Battle of Ia Drang, 1965.

 South Vietnam
 United States
 South Korea
 Australia
 New Zealand
 Thailand
 Philippines
 Laos
Cambodia Khmer Republic
 North Vietnam
 Viet Cong
Laos Pathet Lao
 Khmer Rouge
 China
 Soviet Union
 North Korea
North Vietnamese-allied victory
Korean DMZ Conflict
(1966–1969)Part of the Korean conflict and the Cold War

Location: Korean Demilitarized Zone

ROK and US troop stationed at the DMZ, 1967.

 South Korea
 United States
 North Korea US-allied victory
  • North Korean failure to launch an insurgency in South Korea
Dominican Civil War
(1965–1966)Location: Dominican Republic

US soldiers push a child underneath a Jeep to protect him during a firefight in Santo Domingo on May 5, 1965.

 Dominican Loyalists
 United States
 IAPF
 Dominican Constitutionalists US-allied victory
Multinational Intervention in Lebanon
(1982–1984)Location: Lebanon

US Marines on patrol in Beirut, April 1983

 Lebanese Armed Forces

 UNIFIL
Multinational Force in Lebanon:


 Israel
 Lebanese Front
 Army of Free Lebanon
SLA

 Lebanese National Movement
 Jammoul
 PLO

 Amal Movement


 Iran

 Hezbollah
Islamic Jihad Organization


 Islamic Unification Movement


 Syria


 Arab Deterrent Force

Syrian-Allied Victory
Invasion of Grenada
(1983)Part of the Cold War

Location: Grenada

American soldiers in mortar positions in Grenada.

 United States
 Barbados
 Jamaica
 Antigua and Barbuda
 Dominica
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
 Saint Lucia
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Grenada PRG of Grenada
 Cuba
Military advisors:

List
US-allied victory
  • Military dictatorship of Hudson Austin deposed
  • Defeat of Cuban military presence
  • Restoration of constitutional government
Invasion of Panama
(1989–1990)Location: Panama

U.S. troops prepare to take a neighborhood in Panama City, December 1989.

 United States
 Panamanian Opposition
 Panama US-allied victory
Gulf War
(1990–1991)Location: IraqKuwaitSaudi Arabia, and Israel

M1 Abrams tanks of the 3rd Armored Division advance on Medina Ridge.

 Kuwait
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Saudi Arabia
 France
 Canada
 Egypt
 Syria
 Qatar
 Bahrain
 United Arab Emirates
 Oman
 Iraq US-allied victory
Iraqi No-Fly Zone Enforcement Operations
(1991–2003)Location: Iraq

Tomahawk cruise missile is fired from an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer during Operation Desert Fox in December 1998.

 United States
 United Kingdom
 France
 Australia
 Belgium
 Netherlands
 Saudi Arabia
 Turkey
 Italy
 Iraq US-allied victory
  • Periodic depletion of Iraqi air defenses
First U.S. Intervention in the Somali Civil War
(1992–1995)Part of the Somali civil war (1991–present)

Location: Somalia

US Marines on patrol in Somalia.

 United States
 United Kingdom
 Spain
 Saudi Arabia
 Malaysia
 Pakistan
 Italy
 India
 Greece
 Germany
 France
 Canada
 Botswana
 Belgium
 Australia
 New Zealand
Somalia Somali National Alliance Inconclusive/Other Result
  • Failure to capture SNA leader Mohamed Farrah Aidid; specific Aidid lieutenants captured
  • Withdrawal of U.S. forces 5 months after losses in the Battle of Mogadishu
  • The UN mandate saved close to 100,000 lives, before and after U.S. withdrawal
  • Civil war is ongoing
Bosnian War
(1992–1995)Part of the Yugoslav Wars

Location: Bosnia and Herzegovina

Russian and American troops on a joint patrol around the Bosnian town of Zvornik on the afternoon of February 29, 1996.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia Herzeg-Bosnia
 Croatia


 United States
 Belgium
 Canada
 Denmark
 France
 Germany
 Italy
 Luxembourg
 Netherlands
 Norway
 Portugal
 Spain
 Turkey
 United Kingdom

 Republika Srpska
 Serbian Krajina
 Western Bosnia
US-allied victory
Intervention in Haiti
(1994–1995)Location: Haiti

US troops arrive in Haiti.

 United States
 Poland
 Argentina
 Haiti US-allied victory
Kosovo War
(1998–1999)Part of the Yugoslav Wars

Location: Serbia

Bombing of Novi Sad.

 KLA
Albania AFRK
 Albania
 Croatia
 United States
 Belgium
 Canada
 Czech Republic
 Denmark
 France
 Germany
 Hungary
 Italy
 Luxembourg
 Netherlands
 Norway
 Portugal
 Poland
 Spain
 Turkey
 United Kingdom
 FR Yugoslavia US-allied victory[10][11][12][13]
  • Ceasefire reached through Kumanovo Agreement of June 1999. after Russian and Finnish envoys visit Belgrade
  • Yugoslav forces pull out of Kosovo
  • UN Resolution 1244 confirming Kosovo as de jure part of FRY
  • De facto separation of Kosovo from FR Yugoslavia under UN administration
  • Return of Albanian refugees after attempted ethnic cleansing of Albanians
  • KLA veterans join the UÇPMB, starting the Preševo insurgency
  • Around 200,000 Serbs, Romani, and other non-Albanians fleeing Kosovo and many of the remaining civilians becoming victims of abuse
  • Three Chinese journalists were killed in United States bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade
  1. ^ Advisory role from the forming of the MAAG in Vietnam to the Gulf of Tonkin incident.
  2. ^ Direct U.S. involvement ended in 1973 with the Paris Peace Accords. The Paris Peace Accords of January 1973 saw all U.S forces withdrawn; the Case–Church Amendment, passed by the U.S Congress on 15 August 1973, officially ended direct U.S military involvement .
  3. ^ The war reignited on December 13, 1974 with offensive operations by North Vietnam, leading to victory over South Vietnam in under two months.

21st-century wars[edit]

Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result for the United States and its Allies
War in Afghanistan
(2001–present)Part of the War on Terror and the War in Afghanistan (1978–present)

Location: Afghanistan

American and British soldiers take a tactical pause during a combat patrol in the Sangin District area of Helmand Province.

 Resolute Support Mission
 Afghanistan
 United States
 Canada
 United Kingdom
 Australia
 New Zealand
 Croatia
 Czech Republic
 Denmark
 Georgia
 Germany
 Italy
 Romania
 Spain
 Turkey

Formerly:
 ISAF

Afghanistan Taliban

Allied groups
 HIG
 al-Qaeda
 Islamic Jihad Union[14]


Taliban splinter groups


Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant IS-Affiliates:


2001 Invasion:
Afghanistan Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan

Ongoing
Iraq War
(2003–2011)Part of the War on Terror

Location: Iraq

Soldiers from 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment conduct security before a cordon and search operation in Biaj, Iraq with their M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank.

 United States
 Iraq
 United Kingdom
 Australia
 South Korea
 Denmark
 Italy
 Georgia
 Poland
 Spain
 Netherlands
 Ukraine
 Romania
 MNF–I
 Ba’ath Loyalists

 Islamic State of Iraq
 al-Qaeda in Iraq
 Mahdi Army
 Special Groups
 IAI
 Ansar al-Sunnah


2003 Invasion:
Iraq Iraq

Inconclusive/other result[15]
Second U.S. Intervention in the Somali Civil War
(2007–2021)Part of the Somali Civil War (1991–present) and the War on Terror

Location: Somalia and Northeastern Kenya

MQ-9 Reaper commonly used in covert drone strikes in Somalia.

 Somalia
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Kenya
 Ethiopia
 AMISOM
 United Nations

 European Union[26]

 Al-Shabaab
Hizbul Islam

 Daesh
Alleged support:
 Eritrea

Inconclusive/Other Result
Operation Ocean Shield
(2009–2016)Part of the War on Terror

Location: Indian Ocean

A tall plume of black smoke rises from a destroyed pirate vessel that was struck by USS Farragut in March 2010.

 NATO
 United States
 Malaysia
 Norway
 United Kingdom
 New Zealand
 Denmark
 Netherlands
 Italy
 South Korea
 India
 Russia
 China
Somali pirates US-allied victory
  • Number of pirate attacks dramatically decreased
  • The US Office of Naval Intelligence have officially reported that in 2013, only 9 incidents of piracy were reported and that none of them were successfully hijacked[citation needed]
  • Piracy drops 90%[27]
International intervention in Libya
(2011)Part of the Libyan Crisis and the First Libyan Civil War

Location: Libya

US vessels launch missiles in support of the First Libyan Civil War.

 NATO
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Belgium
 Bulgaria
 Canada
 Denmark
 France
 Greece
 Italy
 Netherlands
 Norway
 Romania
 Spain
 Turkey
 Sweden
 Jordan
 Qatar
 United Arab Emirates

 Anti-Gaddafi rebels

 Libya US-allied victory
Operation Observant Compass
(2011–2017)Part of the War on Terror

Location: Uganda

U.S. Marine Sgt. Joseph Bergeron, a task force combat engineer, explains combat marksmanship tactics to a group of Ugandan soldiers.

 United States
 Uganda
 DR Congo
 Central African Republic
 South Sudan
 Lord’s Resistance Army Ongoing
  • Founder and leader of the LRA Joseph Kony goes into hiding
  • Senior LRA commander Dominic Ongwen surrenders to American forces in the Central African Republic and is tried at the Hague[7][8]
  • Majority of LRA installations and encampments located in South Sudan and Uganda abandoned and dismantled
  • Small scale LRA activity continues in eastern DR Congo, and the Central African Republic
American-led intervention in Iraq
(2014–present)Part of Operation Inherent Resolve, the Iraqi Civil War, the Spillover of the Syrian Civil War, the War on Terror and the International ISIS campaign

Location: Iraq

General Stephen J. Townsend observes a HIMARS strike that destroyed a building near Haditha, September 2016

 United States
 Iraq
 Iraqi Kurdistan
 Australia
 New Zealand
 Belgium
 Canada
 Denmark
 France
 Germany
 Jordan
 Morocco
 Netherlands
 United Kingdom
 Turkey

 Iran
 Hezbollah

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Islamic State of Iraq and Syria Ongoing
  • Tens of thousands of ISIL fighters killed
  • American-led forces launch over 13,300 airstrikes on ISIL positions in Iraq
  • Heavy damage dealt to ISIL forces, ISIL loses 40% of its territory in Iraq by January 2016, and all of its territory in Iraq in December 2017
  • Multinational humanitarian and arming of ground forces efforts
  • 200 ISIL created mass graves found containing up to 12,000 people[29]
  • Ongoing US-led Coalition advising and training of Iraqi and Kurdish ground forces
  • US maintains limited military presence in Iraq
American-led intervention in Syria
(2014–present)Part of Operation Inherent Resolve, the Syrian Civil War, the War on Terror and the International ISIS campaign

Location: Syria

United States United States

 Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria


 CJTF-OIR Members:
 United Kingdom
 France
 Australia
 New Zealand
 Canada
 Jordan
 Denmark
 Netherlands
 Belgium
 Lebanon
 Morocco
 Saudi Arabia
 United Arab Emirates
 Qatar
 Bahrain


 Turkey


 Israel (limited involvement; against Hezbollah and government forces only)


Formerly:
Syrian opposition Free Syrian Army (2011–2017)


Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Islamic State of Iraq and Syria


 al-Qaeda linked groups:

 Syria (limited encounters with US and Israel)
Supported by:
 Russia
 Iran
 Hezbollah
Syria-allied victory
American intervention in Libya
(2015–2020)Part of the Second Libyan Civil War, the War on Terror, and the International ISIS Campaign

Location: Libya

USS Wasp conducts flight operations in Operation Odyssey Lightning.

 United States
 Libya
 Islamic State in Libya US-allied Victory
  • Liberation of Sirte
  • Hundreds of airstrikes carried out in Libya against Islamic State affiliated militant groups

See also[edit]

Oil: The Issue of American Intervention (1975)

In Jan 1975, Commentary Magazine argued that the US should threaten to invade the Persian Gulf if they did not:

  1. agree to price oil exclusively in dollars, thereby generating demand for dollars
  2. save oil profits in US Treasury bills, thereby financing the US debt
  3. buy American weapons, including surplus Vietnam war equipment, and future US weapons, thereby financing the military industrial complex

 

There remains the argument that military intervention in the Persian Gulf would on moral grounds alone not be countenanced by domestic public opinion. Nor is it only the public that would presumably find in the act a manifestation of complete moral bankruptcy. One has the distinct impression that the foreign-policy elite shares this view and that in the certitude with which the public’s supposed reaction is diagnosed there is something close to a wish-fulfilling prophecy. It is a curious reaction coming from those who once found no great difficulty, moral or otherwise, in supporting the intervention in Vietnam or who, in finally abandoning their support for intervention, did so not on moral grounds, but because they concluded Vietnam could not have a successful outcome or that, whatever the outcome, the costs had become disproportionate to the interests at stake. Perhaps their present reaction to the prospect of armed intervention in the Persian Gulf is not so curious, though, given this record. It is not surprising that, having lacked a sense of balance, moral and otherwise, in that most painful experience, they should lack a sense of balance today, and that we should find the law of compensation—or rather of overcompensation—at work.

At issue here is not whether there is some clear moral or legal basis for justifying armed intervention in the Persian Gulf, but whether public opinion would be morally outraged by the action. Though it is not uncommon to find them confused, these are two quite different questions. There is no need for positive moral approval, let alone moral fervor, by the public so long as it consents to the need for the action. There may even be considerable gain in the absence of that element which has so often attended policy in the past. The difficulty, of course, is that the public has been long habituated to support the use of force only in cases which have been made to appear as necessary for the containment of Communism, in turn equated with the nation’s security. Could the public be induced, in the shadow of Vietnam, to support a military intervention that bore no apparent or tangible relation to the containment of Communism, itself a factor of diminishing importance in determining the public’s disposition? No one can say. Put in the abstract, the question itself may be rather meaningless. It would take on meaning only after a concerted effort had been made to persuade the public that the alternatives to intervention were laden with dangers to the nation’s well-being. Even then it remains an open question whether an administration could obtain public support, or tolerance, for intervention in the absence of events at home that, once plainly visible, would require little further effort in persuasion. In this instance, the choice might well be between a public that would oppose intervention so long as the interests at stake were not clear, and could not readily be made clear, and a public that would support intervention only when these interests had unfortunately become only too clear.

The point is worth emphasis that we simply do not know what might bring the public to support intervention in the Persian Gulf. If the public viewed such intervention as another Vietnam, they would most assuredly oppose it. But if intervention were to promise success at relatively modest cost, opinion might well move in the direction of support, and particularly if unemployment were to rise to 8 or 9 per cent. Moreover, in this instance, by contrast to Vietnam, the existence of an all-volunteer military force would preclude the painful issues once raised by the draft. Nor is it at all clear that the Left would take the same position toward intervention in the present case as it did toward Vietnam. For the effects of the current oil price on many poor countries do not endear the major oil producers to much of the Left. The relative ease with which Vietnam could be depicted as an attempt to preserve American domination over the developing states, a domination alleged to serve only American interests, would be difficult to repeat today, and this despite the inadequately perceived effects of the oil crisis.

How can China handle US stealth fighters like the F-22 and F-35?

Once the F-22s are airborne, there isn’t anything in the PRC’s military arsenal that can touch them. The F-22 has no peer in air to air combat and F-22s flying from their air bases close to China can shut down any airspace they can cover with their range and munitions.

There’s talk about China’s development of the J-20 and J-31 and how they can go toe to toe with the F-22 but this is incorrect in my opinion: These aircraft were not designed to fight other stealth fighters like the F-22. They were built to use their stealth to engage support aircraft like AWACs, Air refuellers, Recon aircraft and non-stealth combat aircraft using their long range missiles and with their stealth being used to hide them from counter retaliation from F-22s and F-35s in the area as much as possible.

In effect, the J-20 and J-31 are stealth so they can operate in the same airspace as a hostile F-22 with their stealth as a protective measure from the F-22’s radar.

The Chinese media and public may offer up certain military capabilities to assure the nation that they have assets comparable to the F-22 for domestic political consumption, but the Chinese military understands well that there is nothing in their arsenal that can threaten an F-22 once it’s airborne. Any non-stealth assets they have will be shot down before they even get close and the stealth assets are too valuable to be thrown against F-22s, they are better used being preserved for missions against the support infrastructure that surrounds the F-22. With the understanding that the performance of the F-22 would degrade overall if too many support aircraft fall victim to long range missiles from PLAAF stealth fighters.

This doesn’t mean that the PRC has nothing in it’s arsenal to go against the F-22. What they do have is just not the PLAAF, it’s the PRC rocket force.

I have been writing about this subject a bit in the past, so I’ll quote from an older answer here:

However, the US lead in stealth has some major problems that should be addressed. The problem is the basing of these stealth fighters. The US has 6 major bases in Japan and 1 in Guam. The USAF does not use the 80–90 airbases that the Japanese air force uses, and this might be because of how the US wants to control access to it’s stealth fighters but also because it has to equip its bases with perform the complex maintenance that it’s stealth fighters require.

So in theory, there’s only 7 total major bases you can place your stealth fighters at where you can control access to them and also do the whole fancy maintenance they require like re-applying coating etc.

That is…not good, because it means the Chinese don’t have to worry about shooting down these stealth fighters. They just need to concentrate their ballistic missile bombardment on those 7 bases with stealth fighters to knock those bases out or at least interdict operations out of them.

The USAF has realized this problem and are trying to see if they can spread the fighters out a bit more to the 90 bases the Japanese operate but it’s still a work in progress.

There is one other thing: There’s something called the “German Disease” where you get trapped in the idea that as long as you make a VERY high quality platform, it’s gonna be worth 10 of the enemy’s platforms and that’s better than matching the enemy head to head. This is very seductive thinking for a wealthier, more technically advanced power. But it means you are fighting a war with platforms you aren’t willing to lose which is not a good proposition.

The F-22 is a bit of a German Disease for the USAF because there’s only like 170 of them left and they aren’t making any more of them. Each F-22 lost is a permanent loss for the USAF and if a war against China drags on and attrition becomes a factor, a lot of these very high quality assets that the USAF isn’t willing to lose will need to be pulled from the theater after a while once their losses reach 33% per squadron. Now, no one has ever fought the US in a conventional war since Vietnam and managed to drag it out.

But if that does happen, and the US is losing say 2 F-22s a day on average from ballistic missile strikes on bases, losses due to accidents, very rare occasions when an F-22 is show down by the Chinese, this kind of loss rate might start to hurt a month into the conflict. And the USAF would have to withdraw the F-22s at some point so they still have some left in reserve and put the 4.5+ Gens into the missions the F-22s were doing. Very rare a war would last that long with China and for that high a loss rate, but you never know. The F-22s would primarily suffer more from being forced away from their 7 bases in the first island chain and being forced to operate at their max ranges from second island chain bases, but the loss rate from conflict as well in a long war cant be ignored.

Usama Ahmad’s answer to How does the US military currently compare against the Chinese military?

The US may be planning for a short war with China given their preference for Shock and Awe tactics using their overwhelming conventional strength, but as the old axiom goes: Those who plan for short wars tend to lose long ones.

The current concentration of F-22s (and possible F-35s) in seven major basis is not just a threat to the platforms themselves though but the pilots as well.

Recall that the Iranian bombardment of US military bases was done in a way that they deliberately avoided targeting areas where US troops were housed to avoid escalation but they still fired in the proximity of the base to send a message.

This bombardment led to major health issues in US troops stationed on those bases:

A total of 50 U.S. service members suffered traumatic brain injury from this month’s Iranian missile attack on Iraqi bases hosting U.S. troops, the Defense Department said Tuesday.

Traumatic brain injury, or TBI, can include concussions. Of the 50 patients, 31 were treated in Iraq and have returned to duty, Army Lt. Col. Thomas Campbell, a spokesman for the Pentagon, said in a statement.

More U.S. service members diagnosed with brain injury from Iran missile attack

F-22 pilots aren’t exactly a dime a dozen, and they are pretty much elite pilots of whom a limited pool exists. The impact on their physical health from being stationed on seven bases under intense ballistic missile bombardment leads to the question of pilot attrition rather than F-22 attrition: That is, can the Chinese cause enough physical degradation in the health of F-22 pilots with constant missile bombardment to the point that there aren’t enough pilots in forward positions left to carry out a large enough number of sorties to make a difference in combat. Say you are into week 2 of the war and approximately 40% of your pilots have suffered brain injuries from the bombardment (if not killed outright). You might have to drop your F-22 sortie rate from say 100 a week to 40 a week to conserve your pilots and your aircraft assets (i’m not even taking into account sorties reduced due to airbase disruptions from the missile strikes).

This has the effect of reducing the effectiveness and presence of the F-22 to make a meaningful difference in the overall war without actually having to shoot down the F-22.

The solution, as mentioned above is to distribute your stealth fighters across the 90 bases the Japanese have and hope this dilutes the effectiveness of Chinese missile strikes but with a significant increase in your resources spent equipping all these bases to carry out the complex maintenance an F-22 requires (the stealth coating itself is a hassle), making sure the bases are secured from PRC spies trying to get close to F-22s and that all of these bases are capable of withstanding a PRC rocket force barrage.


There is of course the option of trying to knock out PRC missile bases on the mainland to reduce the barrage. But for the most part, even with all the US’s recon and surveillance capabilities, I doubt they can stop the movement and operations of these in a meaningful manner:

The PRC ballistic missile force’s primary goal is to make US bases unusable. The short range missiles are aimed at the US bases in Okinawa while the more medium range missiles are designed to disrupt operations from bases in Japan.

And the DF-26 is designed to make even operations from bases like Guam risky if not maybe as disrupted as the other bases.

The PRC ballistic missile threat is in part inspired by the US military’s failure to effectively hunt and destroy SCUDs in Iraq during the first Gulf War. Which leads the PRC to believe that if they have mobile, solid fueled missile systems, they would not be as prone to destruction from US military forces and pose a considerable threat for the duration of any war with the US. These kinds of missiles are hard to hunt, can quickly break from cover, set up and fire before the enemy can fire back at them.

With a mobile missile system like the SCUD, you have a 15 minute window to detect and destroy it once it breaks from cover. This is currently not within the capability of the US military.

Source: Usama Ahmad’s answer to How does the US military currently compare against the Chinese military?

My current feeling is that, for the most part, Japanese and US bases will see a constant stream of attacks from the Chinese Strategic Rocket force that will disrupt and hinder operations for the duration of the war (or till the Chinese run out of missiles).

There are unseen variables here. How well the US changes up their base designs, how well they integrate their airforce elements with Japanese airbases to withstand missile bombardment (particularly after reflecting on the lessons of the Iranian missile strike).

There are also unseen variables on the side of the Chinese: What’s the state of their strategic Rocket Force? The current reports coming out of China are that the Strategic Rocket Force (BTW I think their new name is Strategic Support Force) are the worst in terms of mental and physical health among all the armed forces. They spend long amounts of time underground away from sunlight, exposed to chemicals in the air from rocket fuel which is above the health and safety limit. The morale isn’t exactly peak and unit readiness obviously has to be called into question.

The Chinese are trying to improve this through a number of fronts: Increasing the rotation of troops so they spend less time underground due to shorter stints, more VR based training to help them deal with the stress of war when their positions are being bombed and they are constantly hunted when out on mobile launchers, increased access to mental health facilities.

People often forget that war is at the end of the day fought by people, not just platforms. The same way the Traumatic brain injuries of an F-22 pilot can determine the war, the mental health and lung damage of a PRC Rocket force soldier can also determine it.


The PLAAF has done it’s own bit of upgrading and modernizing their force structures. They have broken down from the soviet era brigade structures to smaller structures called flights (similar to squadrons in the west). They have increased the level of pilot participation in flight planning, increased the pilot autonomy in the air and moved away from ground based interception tactics. They have their own Red vs Blue exercises and VR training programs as well.

However, my guess is that these won’t make difference in preparing the PLAAF for fighting against F-22s for the simple reason that even USAF pilots in F-15s and F-16s who are veterans are unable to beat F-22s in air combat. The tech gap is simply too large.

The only benefit of these modernizations I see is that the J-20 pilots whose job it is to skim around the F-22s, using their stealth to protect themselves from the F-22’s missiles, can carry out more effective missions hunting the support aircraft that support the F-22s.


There are some last issues that could impact how China’s fight against American American stealth fighters will play out:

  1. American Production Lines
  2. American Joint operations with allies

On the issue of production lines:

The F-35 production line right now is 15 aircraft a month at peak production. This is considered low by some standards but to be honest, considering that it’s a very advanced fighter it doesn’t seem to matter much. The problem however, is that this is under the assumption that every single F-35 produced will be deployed against China which is not true because the US has to manage multiple theaters (Russia-Europe, Home Air Bases etc.).

Also, the F-35 is a multi national project, so those 15 F-35s being made every month have to shared between 12 Airforces, 1 Marine Corp and 2 Navies across the planet. Further reducing the number of stealth fighters the US can deploy against China.

Source: Usama Ahmad’s answer to How does the US military currently compare against the Chinese military?

At the moment the US has built around 600 F-35s but not all of them have been deployed against the PRC in the Pacific theater. A good chunk of these have gone to allied forces who might not participate in a war against China or to squadrons the US might not redeploy to the Pacific. The 15 a month production line means it will be some time till the US can field the same hundreds of F-15s/F16s/F-18s that they fielded against Iraq or deployed around Iran.

The F-22 has no production lines anymore so every F-22 lost is a permanent loss.

The PRC on the other hand gets to field every single stealth fighter they build to the Pacific theater and don’t have to share the production lines with allied forces.

But as discussed above, this might be a bit of a moot point since the PRC could deploy their J-20s or J-31s to missions that don’t bring much chance of air to air combat against other stealth fighters.

The second is that the US has to coordinate military activities with allies like Japan and Taiwan. NATO and the US-South Korean militaries are heavily integrated already at the moment but it’s unclear how well the US and Japanese militaries or the US and Taiwanese militaries will work together. The Pentagon bureaucracy is appallingly bad while the US works with militaries world wide, actively integrating them into the overall command structure led by the US for a war against China is a bit of a new thing for them to do.

The PRC, being a single entity, does not face this problem.


Missile Defense and Missile Defeat

The US has begun to understand the lethality of the Chinese missile arsenal and the threat it poses to US naval and airpower assets in the Pacific which is why they have begun to invest in the idea of 2 forms of counter missile operations:

  1. Missile Defense
  2. Missile Defeat

The missile defense aspect is the idea that you have platforms capable of shooting down enemy missiles in a way that moves away from the kinetic interceptor technology of today.

The current interceptor technology of Patriots and THAADs are incredibly expensive which is why you can only deploy them in a low density manner to counter isolated missile launches such as ICBMs from North Korea.

The cost of individual interceptors is so high that you would bankrupt yourself making enough of them to shoot down missiles that cost a fraction of the interceptor’s cost. If you are building 2 $50 million dollar interceptors to shoot down 1 $10 million dollar missile, you are bankrupting yourself.

The only cost effective way to shoot down swarms of Chinese missiles is using energy based weapons but that is not something that’s deployable today as the technology is still being developed.

Missile Defeat is the second form of defense: Where you saturate your conflict zone with sensors so that you can have longer early warnings of missile launches and be able to target them and defeat the missile launches before they actually launch. So basically, solve the problem of the 15 minute window that the US faced when scud hunting in the Iraqi desert.

This is currently being developed as well and is not in a finalized solution.

And of course, the Chinese aren’t sitting around either and will come up with ways to counter energy based missile defense and sensor networks attempting to defeat missile launches.


At the end of the day, the US military is no joke and the F-22 is probably the single most deadliest fighter ever created, probably even more so than the F-35 which funnily enough is crippling the US economy in peacetime with it’s $30–50,000 dollar per hour maintenance cost.

Stealth fighters are great to have in a war but terrible to have in a peace and at a time when US social unrest is at an all time high due to economic inequalities, perhaps the greatest threat to F-22s are congressional budget hearings rather than any weapon in the Chinese arsenal.

Nevertheless, the PRC has been investing heavily in denial weapons that would deny free air and sea access to the US military operating close to the Chinese seaboard (and keep them away from Taiwan).

One potential scenario is that assuming the US doesn’t rebase the F-22s to the 90 Japanese air-fields but keeps them concentrated in the current 8 or so bases they have:

The F-22s would probably not face that many losses from missile strikes but pilot rotation would have be high due to high churn over because of mental/physical strain from constant Chinese missile bombardments on F-22 airfields. F-22s would be more at risk of malfunction due to disruptions in their maintenance routines because of missile strikes. They would probably also fly lower numbers of sorties than optimal because of constant bombardment and these would normally be air defense or air escort sorties for aircraft trying to get closer to the Chinese sea board for recon or to disrupt Chinese air support for any potential invasion of Taiwan. They could also be used for strike missions on the mainland on high value military targets that non-stealth fighters would not be able to reach.

Edit: Thanks to Walter Tak in the comments pointing out that a fully loaded F-22 might only be restricted to hitting coastal targets rather than anything deep inside Chinese territory due to range limitations.

The F-22s would have to face several situations where they were operating at the edge of their combat radius because of the constant threat to air refuellers from Chinese stealth aircraft that would utilize their stealth to hunt for USAF/Japanese AWACS, EW, Recon and Refueling platforms in contested airspace. The F-22s would also be paired with a drone UCAV wingman that the F-22 would control remotely when operating in high-danger environments where the F-22 can’t be risked and a remotely piloted wingman from the invisible F-22 would take on the risk instead (assuming stable links can be maintained in the face of Chinese EW). If such comm links are disrupted, the UCAV would have to operate autonomously using onboard AI.

The longer the war drags on however, the worse it is for the F-22s as the US would have to begin pulling F-22 pilots from squadrons not based in the Pacific as the problem they would face is pilot shortages rather than F-22 shortages. A small but significant number of F-22s might be lost due to destruction on the ground or air crashes due to maintenance disruptions (more so the latter than the former). But the primary issue the USAF would face is that their F-22 pilots on the 8 air bases facing constant missile bombardment would begin to face serious mental and physical health problems due to concussions/mental strain/shell shock. They would need to be rotated out of combat in tours as short as a few days given how intense a US-China open conflict would be. The sortie rate could be maintained as long as pilots are able to recover and cognitively function once returned to combat after their tour. If they don’t and their mental/physical injuries are more permanent or long duration, the F-22 fleet would have to drastically reduce sorties correspondingly.

This strain isn’t a one way thing either: Chinese Rocket Force troops who are in underground silos, launching hundreds of missiles a day, breathing in toxic fumes from rocket fuel and facing constant bombardment of their own from US assets would face similar strains and have to be rotated constantly.

As mentioned earlier, in war we sometimes focus too much on the platform aspect and forget that it’s real human beings fighting it. And the question of the F-22 in the Pacific might ultimately boil down to which side has enough soldiers standing and in fighting condition at the end of the day: A tale as old as war itself


Edit: Thanks to JL Shin for the correction: the Strategic Rocket Force is still separate from the Strategic Support Force and both exist as separate entities so the ballistic missile force referred to in this answer would be the Strategic Rocket force.

Why were the Japanese soldiers in WW II so hesitant to surrender in battle?

Because they thought the enemy were like them. They thought that if for instance Tokyo fell, then it would be the rape of Tokyo (just like they did the rape of Nanjing).

It’s well known that when the Philippines fell the Japanese were very surprised of the amount of U.S prisoners and they were simply not prepared to house so many prisoners but i ask…

How many U.S soldiers would surrender if they knew that slavery, torture, starvation, humiliation and maybe death was going to await them at the Japanese prisioner camps?

Not many. Many would have fought to the death. Just like the Japanese fought rather than falling to the horrors they thought would await them at the hands of the westerners.

I’m actually now thinking in the female fighters of the middle east.

We have heard the cases of Syrian, Israeli, Kurdish, and other female fighters against ISIS that choose suicide over capture. Quite simply because they know that what awaits them. It’s rape, slavery or at least execution.

There were some Japanese women who committed suicide over capture for the same reason.

I don’t think they knew about the rape of Nanjing. But I think they were warned by soldiers and officials of what may happen to them.

Can Zhang gave an amazing answer (sorry I don’t know the link ) but I think it needs some more comments with this..

Disclaimer: Western Allies, Japan, Soviets, Chinese, and Axis all committed atrocities, but all on different levels. We just cannot compare the worst of the Allies with the worst of the Axis. They are on different levels.