Commentary: I study liars. I’ve never seen one like Donald Trump.

I spent the first two decades of my career as a social scientist studying liars and their lies. I thought I had developed a sense of what to expect from them. Then along came President Donald Trump. His lies are both more frequent and more malicious than ordinary people’s.

In research beginning in the mid-1990s, when I was a professor at the University of Virginia, my colleagues and I asked 77 college students and 70 people from the nearby community to keep diaries of all the lies they told every day for a week. They handed them in to us with no names attached. We calculated participants’ rates of lying and categorized each lie as either self-serving (told to advantage the liar or protect the liar from embarrassment, blame or other undesired outcomes) or kind (told to advantage, flatter or protect someone else).

At The Washington Post, the Fact Checker feature has been tracking every false and misleading claim and flip-flop made by Trump this year. The inclusion of misleading statements and flip-flops is consistent with the definition of lying my colleagues and I gave to our participants: “A lie occurs any time you intentionally try to mislead someone.” In the case of Trump’s claims, though, it is possible to ascertain only whether they were false or misleading, and not what the president’s intentions were.

I categorized the most recent 400 lies that The Post had documented through mid-November in the same way my colleagues and I had categorized the lies of the participants in our study.

The college students in our research told an average of two lies a day, and the community members told one. (A more recent study of the lies 1,000 U. S. adults told in the previous 24 hours found that people told an average of 1.65 lies per day; the authors noted that 60 percent of the participants said they told no lies at all, while the top 5 percent of liars told nearly half of all the falsehoods in the study.) The most prolific liar among the students told an average of 6.6 lies a day. The biggest liar in the community sample told 4.3 lies in an average day.

In Trump’s first 298 days in office, however, he made 1,628 false or misleading claims or flip-flops, by The Post’s tally. That’s about six per day, far higher than the average rate in our studies. And of course, reporters have access to only a subset of Trump’s false statements — the ones he makes publicly — so unless he never stretches the truth in private, his actual rate of lying is almost certainly higher.

That rate has been accelerating. Starting in early October, The Post’s tracking showed that Trump told a remarkable nine lies a day, outpacing even the biggest liars in our research.

But the flood of deceit isn’t the most surprising finding about Trump.

Both the college students and the community members in our study served their own interests with their lies more often than other people’s interests. They told lies to try to advantage themselves in the workplace, the marketplace, their personal relationships and just about every other domain of everyday life. For example, a salesperson told a customer that the jeans she was trying on were not too tight, so she could make the sale. The participants also lied to protect themselves psychologically: One college student told a classmate that he wasn’t worried about his grades, so the classmate wouldn’t think he was stupid.

Less often, the participants lied in kind ways, to help other people get what they wanted, look or feel better, or to spare them from embarrassment or blame. For example, a son told his mother he didn’t mind taking her shopping, and a woman took sides with a friend who was divorcing, even though she thought her friend was at fault, too.

About half the lies the participants told were self-serving (46 percent for the college students, 57 percent for the community members), compared with about a quarter that were kind (26 percent for the students, 24 percent for the community members). Other lies did not fit either category; they included, for instance, lies told to entertain or to keep conversations running smoothly.

One category of lies was so small that when we reported the results, we just tucked them into a footnote. Those were cruel lies, told to hurt or disparage others. For example, one person told a co-worker that the boss wanted to see him when he really didn’t, “so he’d look like a fool.” Just 0.8 percent of the lies told by the college students and 2.4 percent of the lies told by the community members were mean-spirited.

My colleagues and I found it easy to code each of our participants’ lies into just one category. This was not the case for Trump. Close to a quarter of his false statements (24 percent) served several purposes simultaneously.

Nearly two-thirds of Trump’s lies (65 percent) were self-serving. Examples included: “They’re big tax cuts — the biggest cuts in the history of our country, actually” and, about the people who came to see him on a presidential visit to Vietnam last month: “They were really lined up in the streets by the tens of thousands.”

Slightly less than 10 percent of Trump’s lies were kind ones, told to advantage, flatter or protect someone else. An example was his statement on Twitter that “it is a ‘miracle’ how fast the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police were able to find the demented shooter and stop him from even more killing!” In the broadest sense, it is possible to interpret every lie as ultimately self-serving, but I tried to stick to how statements appeared on the surface.

Trump told 6.6 times as many self-serving lies as kind ones. That’s a much higher ratio than we found for our study participants, who told about double the number of self-centered lies compared with kind ones.

The most stunning way Trump’s lies differed from our participants’, though, was in their cruelty. An astonishing 50 percent of Trump’s lies were hurtful or disparaging. For example, he proclaimed that John Brennan, James Clapper and James Comey, all career intelligence or law enforcement officials, were “political hacks.” He said that “the Sloppy Michael Moore Show on Broadway was a TOTAL BOMB and was forced to close.” He insisted that other “countries, they don’t put their finest in the lottery system. They put people probably in many cases that they don’t want.” And he claimed that “Ralph Northam, who is running for Governor of Virginia, is fighting for the violent MS-13 killer gangs & sanctuary cities.”

The Trump lies that could not be coded into just one category were typically told both to belittle others and enhance himself. For example: “Senator Bob Corker ‘begged’ me to endorse him for reelection in Tennessee. I said ‘NO’ and he dropped out (said he could not win without my endorsement).”

The sheer frequency of Trump’s lies appears to be having an effect, and it may not be the one he is going for. A Politico/Morning Consult poll from late October showed that only 35 percent of voters believed that Trump was honest, while 51 percent said he was not honest. (The others said they didn’t know or had no opinion.) Results of a Quinnipiac University poll from November were similar: Thirty-seven percent of voters thought Trump was honest, compared with 58 percent who thought he was not.

For fewer than 40 percent of American voters to see the president as honest is truly remarkable. Most humans, most of the time, believe other people. That’s our default setting. Usually, we need a reason to disbelieve.

Research on the detection of deception consistently documents this “truth bias.” In the typical study, participants observe people making statements and are asked to indicate, each time, whether they think the person is lying or telling the truth. Measuring whether people believe others should be difficult to do accurately, because simply asking the question disrupts the tendency to assume that other people are telling the truth. It gives participants a reason to wonder. And yet, in our statistical summary of more than 200 studies, Charles F. Bond Jr. and I found that participants still believed other people more often than they should have — 58 percent of the time in studies in which only half of the statements were truthful. People are biased toward believing others, even in studies in which they are told explicitly that only half of the statements they will be judging are truths.

By telling so many lies, and so many that are mean-spirited, Trump is violating some of the most fundamental norms of human social interaction and human decency. Many of the rest of us, in turn, have abandoned a norm of our own — we no longer give Trump the benefit of the doubt that we usually give so readily.

Washington Post

Bella DePaulo is the author of “How We Live Now: Redefining Home and Family in the 21st Century” and “Singled Out: How Singles Are Stereotyped, Stigmatized, and Ignored, and Still Live Happily Ever After.”

Peter Navarro conducts a Master Class in Not Answering the Question.

Peter Navarro attempts to deny that Trump told Bob Woodward about the seriousness of the coronavirus on Feb 7 and then told the public the exact opposite 2 weeks later.

When Navarro gets caught denying the undeniable he accusing Jake Tapper of “cherry-picking”.

Former Secret Service Agent Shows You How to Get The Truth Out of Anyone | Evy Poumpouras

44:03
now with with language there’s also
44:06
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44:08
of times it has to do with paying
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attention so if I say to you Lisa you
44:11
know what time did you get home last
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night and you say to me well you know I
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answer the question but you’d be
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go and they will move on I didn’t ask
44:23
you what time you usually get home I
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44:26
last night because people are trying to
44:28
avoid lying directly is that why they do
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it yeah snips through the cracks it does
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well look people we all know it’s wrong
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to lie so we don’t like lying so the
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most popular way we lie is through
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omission we will leave something out we
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will be vague in our language and so we
44:45
really want to listen to the language
44:46
are people answering your question when
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you ask a question do they respond back
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with a question who me
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are you talking to me it could be a
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nobody else in the room it’s just you
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45:00
to listening to the language that people
45:02
use also another indicator is usually
45:06
when we speak we’ll say I I feel this
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way I this I went here I that III what
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you’ll tend to see in verbal language is
45:15
somebody who doesn’t use I it means that
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there’s a lack of commitment that
45:20
they’re telling you something but
45:21
they’re not committed to it so think of
45:22
the sentence if I say to you miss you
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love you can’t wait to see you okay I
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miss you I love you I can’t wait to see
45:32
you there’s more of a commitment on that
45:34
latter one so you can possibly assume
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really doesn’t miss you all that much
45:40
really doesn’t love you all that much
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doesn’t care whether they see you and so
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there’s so many clues and the things we
45:47
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do people speak with conviction are they
45:51
vague so when it comes to deception
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people who lie are typically vague
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much more you have to remember there
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won’t be as detailed Wow yes that was
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there’s no gimmick there’s no like here
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it’s it’s really understanding people
46:23
studying human behavior look I’m
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fascinated by people and everyone’s
46:27
unique and everybody’s different and so
46:29
you want to learn people understand
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people and the more curious you are
46:32
about people the more you’ll be able to
46:35
read them and think what matters is to
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this person why would they lie to me
46:40
well what would there be there what
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would be their incentive their motive
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and that’s where empathy comes in using
46:48
empathy to understand somebody else’s
46:50
perspective see the world not through
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your eyes through their eyes and even
46:54
something simple as when I would do
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interviews with people I would sit in
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the chair the person I would be
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interviewing and would sit because I
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wanted to see what does it feel like to
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sit in this chair where are they looking
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what are they staring at is their window
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is their clock are they distracted by
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something what does it feel like so talk
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to people not the way you want to be
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spoken to but the way they want to be
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spoken to a way that resonates with
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and how do you do that by talking less
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give you clues and insight to who they
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are mmm
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gosh my superpower I feel a lot you fail
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a lot yeah
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failure is my superpower the more I fail
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the more resilient I become and the less
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everything that you’re doing
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Saagar Enjeti: New Obamagate docs show Biden LIED about Flynn investigation


Saagar Enjeti discusses developments in Michael Flynn’s now dismissed case, that show former FBI official Peter Strzok, Susan Rice, and Joe Biden’s involvement in Flynn’s investigation.

The Spread of Disinformation and the 2020 Election | Amanpour and Company | Amanpour and Company

President Trump has personally pledged to spend one billion dollars if it will keep him in the White House. McKay Coppins, a journalist for The Atlantic, has identified how a substantial amount of this funding is being spent. After creating a Facebook page so he could follow pro-Trump social media accounts and communicate with online Trump supporters, Coppins uncovered something remarkable: a campaign-coordinated effort to undermine journalists and the mainstream press on a mass scale. Coppins told Hari Sreenivasan about the Trump campaign’s stunning effort to launch one of the largest disinformation campaigns ever conducted.

Pence: “We will always put the health of America first.”

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