Hal Finney (PGP & Bitcoin)

Harold Thomas Finney II (May 4, 1956 – August 28, 2014) was a developer for PGP Corporation, and was the second developer hired after Phil Zimmermann. In his early career, he was credited as lead developer on several console games. He also was an early bitcoin contributor and received the first bitcoin transaction from bitcoin’s creator Satoshi Nakamoto.[1]

India Wants Access to Encrypted WhatsApp Messages

Country makes a new attempt to constrain global tech giants

WhatsApp is facing pressure in India to let authorities trace and read the encrypted messages of its more than 200 million Indian users in a new attempt at constraining global tech giants.

India’s telecommunications regulator has asked for feedback on new rules that—in the name of national security—could force “over the top” services such as WhatsApp, which use mobile operators’ infrastructure, to allow the government access to users’ messages.

At the same time India’s Information Technology Ministry has proposed new intermediary guidelines that would force WhatsApp and others to trace messages and remove objectionable content within 24 hours.

WhatsApp—which has more users in India than in any other country—has “pushed back on government attempts to ban or weaken end-to-end encryption and will continue to do so,” said a person familiar with the company’s thinking.

.. Technology companies argue that they are obligated to protect their customers’ privacy and that demands from investigators would be impossible to satisfy. They say the protection of communication platforms is key for freedom of speech and has helped the global internet to flourish by enabling commerce and communications.

.. “It’s entirely aimed at WhatsApp,” Neha Dharia, director of strategy at London-based research and consulting firm DMMI, said of the government’s moves. “They are the largest messaging service in the country, and growing.”

WhatsApp, which Facebook acquired in 2014 for $22 billion, has been increasing its efforts to produce revenue. India is where the company introduced its first mobile-payments feature, which it hopes to roll out beyond the test phase.

Legions of Indians have flocked to WhatsApp’s service because it allows easy smartphone messaging without a complicated sign-up process. Its popularity has put it squarely in the sights of regulators and critics who say it is being used to spread rumors that can spark violence. More than 20 people were killed last year on the back of rumors spread through WhatsApp. In response, the company introduced restrictions on the number of groups to which messages can be forwarded.

.. The U.S. Congress has rejected a push by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and U.S. Department of Justice to require tech companies to create a back door, circumventing devices’ encryption. But Australia passed tough new encryption laws last month, giving police access to data.
In Vietnam, a new cybersecurity law which went into effect this year requires internet companies to quickly comply with government demands to remove content it doesn’t like.

Why Don’t Companies Just Encrypt All Their Data? It Isn’t So Simple

Organizations that enhance security with encryption find that it can come with a lot of trade-offs

.. Locking data away with encryption keeps it safe, but it comes with trade-offs. For one thing, companies can’t easily perform analysis or machine learning on encrypted data. So at a time when artificial intelligence and real-time data analysis is crucial for competitive advantage, executives must decide what to encrypt and for how long.

In addition, turning on encryption results in increased financial costs and performance impacts.

.. In the 1970s, though, mathematicians devised a more sophisticated method that was made easier with computers, called public key cryptography. This scheme allows people to exchange encrypted messages without sharing a secret key first.

.. encryption isn’t a silver bullet. Hackers can gain access to keys, making encryption worthless. And, before encrypted data can be searched or analyzed, it has to be decrypted first, requiring a company’s computers to work harder than usual.

When encryption is on by default, applications could be as much as 7% slower ..