Do you think more often of your date of birth or date of death?
Do you think of the start or the end?
Do you think of the project or the deadline?
Do you think of your journey or your legacy?
How much substance is there in your soul verses value in your impact on others?
I imagine these are the differences between the Collector and the Digital Librarian. The collector seems to want to experience, to learn and also to share. The collector discovers, understands and reveals to others.
The digital librarian has no long term memory other than what is captured in the library. Where the collector lives for life’s expressive expanses, a digital librarian is designing for not-being-here-anymore. When a doctor says, as the end nears, “you should get your affairs in order…” it is gloomy, foreboding, and tragic to the collector. The Digital Librarian says, “That is all I ever do.”
It is not that the Digital Librarian does not want to live forever—in fact that may be the driving emotion—it is just the method to live forever is not corporal, it is informational. We fight mortality through trying to share, and share permanently.
In creating the Great 78 Project, I have wanted to keep the notes of what records were in whose collections. I believe this may be the most important thing—more important than the recordings—what records were together?
If we want to understand a time or a life, it is made up of those groupings. As a Digital Librarian I want to illuminate for others those lives, those perspectives — I want to not lose those past lives through reorganization. But I don’t think I will be the one to learn from these lives, those choices, those perspectives. It will be other people, or even machines that will learn from these assemblies.
Bill Dunn said in the mid 1980s, “The metadata is more important than the data itself.” Astonishing—how did he know? He came up with the term “metadata” with Mitch Kapor around that time.
Collections are metadata and metadata of great value if these reflect a life’s choices. Those life’s choices may be the most valuable part of the Great 78 collection.
As a Digital Librarian, I feel I should, I must preserve this, share this.
But it is not for me, it passes through me. I am a Digital Librarian, not a collector.
I hope I do a good job during my brief stay on this earth.
<iframe width=”560″ height=”315″ src=”https://www.youtube.com/embed/AU79zwAvKa0″ frameborder=”0″ allow=”accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture” allowfullscreen></iframe>69:40necessarily know about so Wikipedia is69:45still primarily created by Western young69:49male contributors they tell the story of69:55you know the worst knowledge from an69:58extremely limited and privileged69:59standpoint there are ridiculous gaps in70:04this knowledge and then skews what a my70:07favorite example is that there are70:1020,000 articles on French Wikipedia70:13about individual asteroids but a70:15language like Hausa that is spoken by 3070:18million people in Central Africa doesn’t70:20have an entry on the universe so if you70:23think that the the sum of all knowledge70:26representing Wikipedia and you look at70:28where it comes from and who created it70:30it’s ridiculously skewed and slanted70:33towards the demographic of the70:35contributors the problem with that is70:37not just with Wikipedia Wikipedia not70:40many people they know but the contents70:43get translated into our70:45d/f via a project like dbpedia they’re70:49then propagated to the rest of the70:51internet and basically every single70:53linked data system they used today what70:57is like a search engine for music or70:59biomedical information gets its entities71:02gets is like a fundamental relations71:04from Wikipedia so biasing by us out the71:10fact that is a small population of71:12contributors that are creating data and71:16information that powers the entire71:18ecosystem that AI relies upon I think71:21the fundamental problem that we all71:22should be worried about I’ve been veryencouraged by watching some of thestudies of how people use the web peopleare very particular and very peculiarnobody wakes up in the morning sayinghey I want to live a biased life or heyI really want to go to the biased andunfair news channel what I think we’remissing out there are tools for contextand citation we’ve made it hard forpeople to actually know what the hellthey’re looking at that we’ve made it sothat it’s really difficult to go andunderstand is this some babble that justhas been bouncing around for a long timeand long discredited or is this umsomething that actually is real and Ihave trusted sources behind itso I’m encouraged by people want to haveaccess to this stuff the InternetArchive gets three four or five millionpeople a day coming and using its72:24service as best we can tell it’s about72:26the three hundredth most popular is is72:29about the first the fifth most popular72:31okay I’m a little envious um but it does72:34indicate that there’s a lot of interest72:37in finding deeper information than it’s72:41casually available so people want it72:44that’s the good news72:46now we need to build some of the tools I72:48would suggest for citation for context72:51and embed it and that’s what this whole72:53conference is about I’m really glad to72:55be here72:57sorry one last note on context I think72:59you’ve gotten to the heart of a really73:01really big problem which we missed out73:02on the entire problem of knowledge73:05production is about context not just73:07merely switching from one platform to73:09another but you know to take a perhaps a73:12banal example at a researcher who read a73:17paper of a lab that performed a set of73:21experimental conditions that requires a73:24context change for if you are working on73:27a different organism if even if you’re73:29trying to validate and reproduce those73:30results that is a context change which73:32requires translations so big new big73:35problem we should definitely work on73:37this I think with that we will wrap it73:41up and just want to say thanks to the73:43panelists and for coming up here and73:45sharing73:47[Applause]
The dreams of cryptocurrencies tend to focus on money and seem to avoid the topic, repercussions, and significance of debt. In fiat currencies, 95% of all money is matched with debt — in other words, debt creates 95% of all money. This talk aims to bring the impact of debt into the Ethereum conversation, specifically focusing on debt with interest. Let’s consider this side of crypto coins and Ethereum in particular since it provides the ability to encode obligations as contracts and therefore can encode debt obligations.
Brewster Kahle told me that the average of a web page on the Internet is 100 days before it either changes or disappears completely. Kahle
A decade ago, the FBI sent Brewster Kahle, founder of the Internet Archive, a now-infamous type of subpoena known as a National Security Letter, demanding the name, address and activity record of a registered Internet Archive user. The letter came with an everlasting gag order, barring Kahle from discussing the order with anyone but his attorney — not even his wife could know.
The operator of the Wayback Machine allows Wikipedia’s users to check citations from books as well as the web.
Wikipedia is the arbiter of truth on the internet. It’s what settles arguments at bars. It supplies answers for the information snippets you see on your Google or Bing search results. It’s the first stop for nearly everyone doing online research.
The reason people rely on Wikipedia, despite its imperfections, is that every claim is supposed to have citations. Any sentence that isn’t backed up with a credible source risks being slapped with the dreaded “citation needed” label. Anyone can check out those citations to learn more about a subject, or verify that those sources actually say what a particular Wikipedia entry claims they do—that is, if you can find those sources.
It’s easy enough when the sources are online. But many Wikipedia articles rely on good old-fashioned books. The entry on Martin Luther King Jr., for example, cites 66 different books. Until recently, if you wanted to verify that those books say what the article says they say, or if you just wanted to read the cited material, you’d need to track down a copy of the book.
Now, thanks to a new initiative by the Internet Archive, you can click the name of the book and see a two-page preview of the cited work, so long as the citation specifies a page number. You can also borrow a digital copy of the book, so long as no else has checked it out, for two weeks—much the same way you’d borrow a book from your local library. (Some groups of authors and publishers have challenged the archive’s practice of allowing users to borrow unauthorized scanned books. The Internet Archive says it seeks to widen access to books in “balanced and respectful ways.”)
So far the Internet Archive has turned 130,000 references in Wikipedia entries in various languages into direct links to 50,000 books that the organization has scanned and made available to the public. The organization eventually hopes to allow users to view and borrow every book cited by Wikipedia, with the ultimate goal being to digitize every book ever published.
“Our goal is to be a library that’s useful and reachable by more people,” says Mark Graham, director of the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine service.
If successful, the Internet Archive’s project would be a boon to students, journalists, or anyone who wants to check the references of a Wikipedia entry. Google Books also has a massive collection of digitized print books, but it tends to only show small snippets of a text.
“I’ve tried to verify Wikipedia pages by searching blurbs in Google Books but it’s an unpredictable link, and you often don’t have enough surrounding context to evaluate the use,” says Mike Caulfield, a digital literacy expert and director of blended and networked learning at Washington State University Vancouver. “The ability to read a page or two of context around a quote is crucial to both editors trying to protect the integrity of articles, and to readers who need to get to that next step of verification.”
You could, of course, verify the information the traditional way by tracking down a physical copy of a book. But students working late into the night on term papers, or reporters on tight deadlines, might not have time to order a book on Amazon or wait for a library book to become available. In other cases, books might be hard to come by. The Wikipedia entry on the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II, for example, cites hard-to-find titles, says Internet Archive director of partnerships Wendy Hanamura. But thanks to the Internet Archive’s Digital Library of Japanese-American Incarceration, created with the Seattle-based organization Densho, many of those rare books are now available online.
The Internet Archive embarked on its effort to weave digital books into Wikipedia after the 2016 election. “No matter who you wanted to be president, I would say almost everyone would agree the whole process was a train wreck,” Internet Archive founder Brewster Kahle said in a speech in San Francisco last week. From fake news and inauthentic social media campaigns waged by foreign nations to concerns about voting systems themselves being rigged, there were plenty of ways that technology and information systems failed the public. So Kahle convened a group of people to discuss how to improve the information ecosystem. One issue that came up was the fragility of Wikipedia citations. Books and academic journals supply some of the best, most reliable information for Wikipedia editors, but those sources frequently are either unavailable online or are behind paywalls. And even freely available internet content often disappears.
The Internet Archive was in a unique position to help solve this problem. The organization’s Wayback Machine service has archived 387 billion webpages since 2001. It’s also been digitizing physical books and other analog media, and has now scanned 3.8 million books. It has millions more books warehoused.
Graham and company created the InternetArchiveBot, a tool that scans Wikipedia for broken links and automatically adds links to versions archived in the Wayback Machine. Because automatic editing tools require special permission to use, Graham has to work with the Wikipedia communities that manage versions of the encyclopedia in different languages. “All told, we’ve edited 14 million links; more than 11 million point to Internet Archive,” he says.
Adding links to books is similar but more challenging. “If a book has an ISBN number and an entry has a traditional citation format, it’s pretty easy,” Graham explains. But not all books have ISBN numbers, and many Wikipedia citations aren’t properly formatted. For instance, some only cite the book and not a specific page number. There can also be differences between different editions of a book.
Of course, the Internet Archive hasn’t scanned all the books cited by Wikipedia yet. It’s working hard to digitize collections from libraries around the world, along with donations from companies like Better World Books. Graham says the organization scans more than 1,000 books per day. But it has plenty more work to do.