The world would be helped by having multiple stable reserve currencies.
- Amidst renewed calls for replacing the post-war Bretton Woods order, we take the opinion this has already occurred with the creation of bitcoin. Today’s HODLR’s might be tomorrow’s (de)central bankers.
- Any escalation of political instability in the US would threaten the status of the US dollar as the global reserve currency. This hypothetical scenario would be an absolute disaster.
- We are considering buying the dip here. Bitcoin’s critical mass should enable it to overcome its technical inferiority to less popular cryptocurrencies. It’s not going away.
From Bretton Woods to Bitcoin
Crypto is decentralizing AI is centralizing… or if you want to frame it, you know, more ideologically… You could say that crypto is libertarian and AI is communist.
In the Summer of 1944, a group of 730 delegates from 44 nations met at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. These delegates, which included famous economists such as John Maynard Keynes, created a new post-war financial order known as the Bretton Woods System. This agreement set the course for the system that we have today.
In addition to the creation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (predecessor to the World Bank) and the IMF, one of the outcomes of the Bretton Woods conference was the rise of the US dollar as the global reserve currency. To ensure that countries wouldn’t competitively devalue their currencies and create a race-to-the-bottom, exchange rates of various currencies were pegged to the US dollar. The US Dollar was fixed to gold at $35/ounce, thus making it “as good as gold“.
By the late 1960’s the US spending to fund both the space race and the Vietnam war simultaneously. Demands by foreign governments to convert their US dollars into gold began to rise. This led to the “temporary” suspension of the ability to convert the US Dollar into gold in 1971, an action taken by Richard Nixon. Half a century later, conversion is still suspended. This has led to all sorts of economic consequences that are not really understood, which have been catalogued in the wtfhappenedin1971.com website.
This emboldened a system where the United States is able to print money in exchange for real goods and services, and the trade balance has been in decline since. The French called this “America’s exorbitant privilege“.
The next big shakeup came in 2008 and 2009. In the aftermath of the financial crisis, two things happened. Countries began suggesting the creation of a new system that would replace the US dollar as the reserve currency. This included Russia, which advocated for “united future world currency” baring the slogan “unity in diversity“. The idea of abandoning the dollar was further backed by a U.N. report.
The second thing that happened was the creation of bitcoin. A group of renegade cryptographers and programmers known as the “cypherpunks” wanted to create an alternative to government-backed fiat currency. Their creation is now being rapidly adopted by a young generation that sees themselves as “global citizens” first and foremost, before that of any particular nationality. For them, the WiFi password was the passport for e-citizenship.
Characteristics of disruptive businesses, at least in their initial stages, can include: lower gross margins, smaller target markets, and simpler products and services that may not appear as attractive as existing solutions when compared against traditional performance metrics. Because these lower tiers of the market offer lower gross margins, they are unattractive to other firms moving upward in the market, creating space at the bottom of the market for new disruptive competitors to emerge.
Though bitcoin and central banks are not necessarily businesses, the dynamic sounds a lot like the cycle of disruptive innovation. Bitcoin started out as a peer-to-peer payment network on the fringe of the internet. A little over a decade later, and bitcoin is moving into the mainstream.
It’s no secret that interest is picking up amongst institutional investors. Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey recently changed his bio to endorse bitcoin. Elon Musk is enquiring about large bitcoin transactions. Paul Tudor Jones, Stanley Druckenmiller, and Bill Miller have all jumped on the bandwagon. MicroStrategy Inc and MassMutual have bought in. PayPal opened its doors to bitcoin. The federal government recently approved the first ever “digital bank”, able to hold cryptocurrency.
From HODLR to Nouveau Central Banker
…because the FinTech revolution questions the two forms of money that we just discussed, coins and commercial bank deposit. And it questions the role of the state in providing money.
We are at a historic turning point. You–young or not so young–doesn’t matter. But bold entrepreneurs gathered here today, You are not just inventing new services. You are reinventing the history of money. You drawing a completely new future actually, and we are all in the process of adapting.
A new wind is blowing and it is that of digitalization… …and this is key: Money itself is changing. We expect it to become more convenient, more user friendly. Perhaps even less serious-looking. We expect it to be integrated with social media, readily available for online. And person-to-person use including micro payments. And of course we expect it tobe cheap, safe, protected against criminals and prying eyes.
So what role will remain for cash in this digital world… …even crypto currencies such as bitcoin a theorem and ripple are vying for a spot in the cashless world, constantly reinventing themselves in the hope of offering more stable value and quicker and cheaper settlement.
…. Let me be more specific. Should central banks issue a new digital form of money? A state bank token or perhaps an account held directly at the central bank and available to people and firms for retail payments to each of you…. ….this is not science fiction there are central banks around the world that are considering this option…
-Christine Lagarde, 11/25/2018
Central bankers probably aren’t meeting in secret about bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to crack jokes about them. As stated by Christine Lagarde, now President of the European Central Bank, various central banks are already exploring the potential for their own “state bank tokens”. Bitcoin already has dominant market share, and a first-mover advantage.
The leading “state bank token” is China’s digital yuan. China is already in large part cashless, and the digital yuan is currently being tested in four major cities with over $300M in transactions. The digital yuan enables the Chinese Communist Party to “monitor capital flows in great detail and impose limitations or preconditions on the currency’s use.” It could also enable new central banking tools such as very direct stimulus.
Bitcoin’s current market cap is approximately $645B, much larger than the digital yuan. But how could ever scale to the point where it plays a major role in our system?
Bitcoin is hardcoded with 8 decimal places, with one 0.00000001 unit known as a Satoshi. If the exchange rate between the USD and BTC were $1M/1BTC each Satoshi would be worth 1¢. The market cap would be approximately $19T, based solely on today’s circulating supply.
Some will point out the fact that there are other coins based on better encryption techniques. Many of them are superior to bitcoin in various technical aspects. Yet bitcoin has one particular advantage, critical mass. It is the most popular coin, and thus it has the greatest network effect. Bitcoin miners also have the ability to update and upgrade the bitcoin protocol. This capability will help tackle future challenges such as quantum computers hypothetically capable of cracking bitcoin’s algorithm.
Bitcoin may never be as easy to use as a transactional currency, but it is quite plausible as a reserve asset. In essence, it is the first truly global form of currency. Though adopters of bitcoin transact in their local currencies when they buy everyday items, their bitcoin holdings are universal across the globe. It’s all one mutually agreed upon blockchain, a distributed record of what each individual has.
The root problem with conventional currency is all the trust that’s required to make it work. The central bank must be trusted not to debase the currency, but the history of fiat currencies is full of breaches of that trust. Banks must be trusted to hold our money and transfer it electronically, but they lend it out in waves of credit bubbles with barely a fraction in reserve.
This is how bitcoin can become the new reserve currency. Perhaps bitcoin is the reserve currency of the people, as the original intent for bitcoin was to be an alternative fiat currency issued by central banks, founded during the Occupy Wall Street movement… A movement that has conveniently faded away in favor of topics in social justice.
Perhaps today’s miners and holders of Bitcoin will become tomorrow’s central bankers, at least in theory. The world’s decentralized central bank. Again, the true power of Bitcoin is not its technical superiority, but its ubiquity as the largest network.
The New World Order
We’ve explained how bitcoin could become a reserve currency in theory, but why exactly would it? Are there any potential catalysts? Every currency trades in pairs. The real question we must ask is if bitcoin is rising against the US dollar or if the US dollar is falling against bitcoin.
On the surface this is an absurd assertion. There are many currencies and bitcoin is rising against all of them. Bitcoin is rising against goods and services. These are fair arguments. However, underneath the surface there are complex suppositions.
For one, no goods or services are truly denominated in bitcoin. Bitcoin has no basket of native goods that we can compare to the same basket of goods we use to calculate USD inflation. The closest thing bitcoin has to that, is a basket of alternate cryptocurrencies (such as Ethereum) which as a whole are also rapidly rising.
The US dollar is also the reserve currency. Another way to look at it would be to think not about the US dollar in isolation, but to think of all currencies as an index. This leads us to the bold possibility that all currencies are plummeting against the bitcoin. Consider that bitcoin may be like a new technology that has come along, and now central-bank-backed currencies are facing a certain degree of obsoletion. We still use desktop computers today (this article was written on one), but many of you are reading this on a mobile device, as most of our “personal computing” is now done on a handheld mobile device.
If this theory is true it is highly consequential. It would open up the possibility that bitcoin is stable and currency is actually volatile, whipsawing in value. This is a stretch, but an important consideration. Alternatively, bitcoin may stabilize with scale and maturity. This would enable people in even the remote parts of the world access to a stable store of value, with little more than a smartphone. Talk about an upside catalyst.
We created a new world order in 1945… …We created a new dollar based monetary system… 1945 we began a new world order, and we had the United Nations in New York. And we had the World Bank and the IMF in Washington, because it was the American enterprise. And then we had 80% of the world’s gold and we began a process.
Now we’re heavily in debt and we are at those kinds of limits and so on. How are we going to restructure that world order?
According to Dalio, “”having the world’s printing press to produce the world’s currency is the equivalent of having the world’s most important asset.” We interpret this as having the reserve currency. This is something that Dalio wrote about extensively in his book Big Debt Crises, which lays out a clear argument that a country cannot go into hyperinflation so long as it has the printing press for the currency in which its debts are denominated. Note that this is an important feature of Modern Monetary Theory, which argues governments should worry about inflation more than total debt.
In our view, the printing press for the reserve currency is the world’s most valuable asset because the US is in large part printing dollars in exchange for real goods and services. The might of the US dollar was leveraged during the pandemic, as large amounts of money printing offset a global shortage in dollars as firms scrambled a safe-haven. This is why despite printing trillions during the pandemic, the inflation rate is a measly ~1.2%.
But to think that the dollar is invincible is misleading. Technology is transforming our society as a whole, and some of the consequences have been negative. We believe that business models that use algorithms designed to addict users and then monetize their outrage by selling them ads have had a strongly negative affect on society. In fact, this may be destabilizing the country.
The imagery from Capitol Hill last week was both shocking and ominous. After a summer of both protest and political violence, encouraged by US politicians and the media, tensions have risen even further as rioters from the other side of the political spectrum broke into the US Capitol sending the entire US congress scrambling into underground tunnels. Let us be clear. This is not to, in any way, glorify political violence or rebellion against the government (though the later was thematic in the creation of bitcoin).
We instead are highlighting what should be obvious, that our system and the benefits we enjoy from it are much more vulnerable than we realize. Is bitcoin rising against the US dollar or is the US dollar falling against bitcoin? Consider that bitcoin hit 37,000 shortly after protestors stormed the capital, climbing to over $40,000 before crashing back down to $33,000 as President Trump issued a video concession and things calmed down a bit.
There are now real fears that political unrest could boil over into an uprising. This is not fear mongering, Congresswoman Maxine Waters said that Trump “is capable of starting a civil war.” The Joint Chiefs of Staff a memo condemning what happened on Capitol Hill, a week later. The FBI says it is on alert for armed protests in all 50 state capitols. The National Guard is deploying 21,000 troops to DC, more than the total number of US troops in Iraq and Afghanistan. Lethal force is authorized.
Some fantasize that a “second civil war” is a winnable proposition. Even a minor uprising could be catastrophic for the United States. It could destabilize the dollar and delegitimize its role as a reserve currency. Since printing US Dollars in exchange for real goods and services is critical to functioning of the US economy (a privilege of being the world reserve currency), it would also set off a domino effect that would end in economic disaster.
Unfortunately, tensions over the 2020 election are not the only threat to dollar stability. The unrest we have seen in 2020 and early 2021 may only be a preview of what’s to come, as AI and robotics displace workers over the next decade. Facebook has also jumped on the bandwagon with Libra, a project to create a “stable coin” linked to a global currency basket.
Confidence in the US dollar and its position as the reserve currency is much more likely to be toppled by geopolitical unrest than concerns about US debt or how much fiat currency the Federal Reserve is printing. Again, this all shows just how fragile our system can be. If the dollar is no longer a safe haven, a run from the dollar might result in a flight to bitcoin. This is the unfortunate reality of the situation.
Is bitcoin better than gold?
Bitcoin and gold have many similarities. Gold has a distinct history as a reserve asset. Supply increases in gold are limited to how much of it we can dig up out of the earth, the same way that the creation of bitcoin is limited to the function of its algorithm. This supply cannot be expanded in times of crisis to spur credit creation, which is why it has had limited appeal to central bankers. When a crisis occurs, we are all forced to pay the tax.
Gold may have valuable uses in industrial applications, but Bitcoin has one distinct advantage over gold. Gold suffers from the trust problem that bitcoin’s technology eliminates. If you want to borrow against your gold, or use it as collateral, a counterparty must trust that you actually have it. If you put it in a bank, you no longer have sovereignty over it.
Our society is filled with conspiracies that there’s no gold at Fort Knox, or that JP Morgan shuffles the gold around in underground tunnels that connect to the Federal Reserve. Much of the gold in the world is paper gold that is not actually backed by bullion, which is the trust problem squared. If you do have lots of gold, it could be stolen. In large enough quantities, difficult to transport. Gold can be pried from your cold, dead hands. Bitcoin cannot.
Bitcoin’s system of registry and encryption is its innovation. That’s the blockchain, an algorithm that eliminates the need for trust. This innovation is not only a massive leap forward in technology, it is perhaps the first major innovation in banking since electronic markets were first introduced to trading floors. All other innovations seem incremental in comparison.
Bitcoin adopters entrust in a system that is designed not trust or be trusted by anyone, by giving everyone a perfect record of all accounts and transactions. Bitcoin can be stolen from an exchange intermediary, but it cannot be stolen from the blockchain database.
(An excerpt from the book Superintelligence by Nick Bostrom. This graph and the passage above really puts the exponential effect of technology-driven disruption into perspective. Image Source: Nick Bostrom.)
As a transactional form of currency, bitcoin’s limitations are inherent. As a reserve asset, bitcoin’s possibilities are limitless. One Satoshi could equal $1, $10, $100… it is infinitely scalable.
It is also likely ungovernable, adhering only to the will of the people. If governments attempt to reign in bitcoin with regulation, a new layer could emerge with users bypassing the exchange intermediaries (such as Coinbase) with their wallets running on their own local hardware connected directly to the network. This was way it was done in the beginning. If governments target the free will of the individual, this too could backfire. It might only drive fear that they are attempting to salvage their authority from the onslaught of technology, driving bitcoin’s legitimacy.
You know, what is money? Money is an entry in a database.
– Elon Musk (12/9/2020)
We are living in one of the most bizarre moments in history, driven by the accelerating pace of technology, an exponential curve. Tech investors often go by the idiom “if you’re not early you’re late.” Perhaps the euphoria and excitement regarding the tech bubble, that humanity would be reshaped by the transformative impact of networks and computers, was not wrong. Just early. Though there are certain “meme stocks” that are in a phase speculative euphoria today, perhaps this time it is very different in a general sense, and things like bitcoin will indeed be transformative in the long run.
There are nations in the world who would like to see the end of the US dollar’s dominance, as it would shift the balance of power in their favor. There are central bankers who would like to see digital currencies, giving them incredible new tools to track, monitor, and implement monetary policy directly. But perhaps a new Bretton Woods agreement has already happened, and it was a group of cryptographers and software developers creating bitcoin… Giving the power of the central banks to the masses. If the government can click a few keys at the Federal Reserve and create money, why can’t we?
This article was written by5.33K Followers
Equities analyst at a long/short hedge fund. Occasionally I publish some of the more interesting research I…
Contributor Since 2013
Equities analyst at a long/short hedge fund. Occasionally I publish some of the more interesting research I work on for fun. These are my personal thoughts and not investment advice.
Disclosure: I am/we are long BTC-USD. I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.
Additional disclosure: We are also investors in cryptocurrency mining.
NEW YORK (Reuters) – Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner said on Wednesday the U.S. dollar will remain the world’s reserve currency for a long time, though he expressed openness to expanded use of an IMF currency basket.
The U.S. dollar tumbled after Geithner told policy-makers and business executives at the Council on Foreign Relations that he was “quite open” to a Chinese suggestion to move toward greater use of an IMF-created global currency basket comprising dollar, euros, sterling and yen.
Prompted by the moderator to clarify his position, Geithner said: “The dollar remains the world’s dominant reserve currency and I think that’s likely to continue for a long period of time.”
“As a country, we will do what’s necessary to make sure we’re sustaining confidence in our financial markets and in this economy’s long-term fundamentals,” he added.
Earlier this week, Chinese central bank governor Zhou Xiaochuan, said the world should consider using the IMF’s Special Drawing Rights (SDR) basket as a super-sovereign reserve currency.
Geithner said he hadn’t read Zhou’s proposal, but added, “as I understand it, it’s a proposal designed to increase the use of the IMF’s Special Drawing Rights. I am actually quite open to that suggestion.”
“But you should think of it as rather evolutionary, building on the current architecture, than rather than moving us to global monetary union.”
China’s foreign exchange reserves are the largest in the world at nearly $2 trillion and China is the biggest holder of U.S. Treasury debt.
The dollar initially fell against the euro on reports of Geithner’s remarks, but pared losses he reiterated his faith in the dollar as world reserve currency.
“Geithner admits to not having read China’s proposal, and President Obama’s comments on the dollar yesterday — no need for another reserve currency and that the dollar was fundamentally strong — was more of the underlying signal,” said Marc Chandler, senior currency strategist at Brown Brothers Harriman in New York.
Senior Obama adviser Paul Volcker also said on Wednesday a Chinese suggestion to move toward a world currency system linked to the IMF’s SDRs was not practical.
“I understand restiveness about the lopsided nature of the present international monetary system that’s so dependent on the dollar,” Volcker said at a panel with British Prime Minister Gordon Brown at New York University.
But Volcker said when China questioned the dollar’s role as the world reserve currency, “They ignore the fact that they didn’t have to buy those dollars in the first place so they contributed to the problem.
FOREIGN APPETITE STRONG
Speaking on CNBC television later Wednesday, Geithner underscored his desire to see a strong dollar.
“I want to say this very clearly, a strong dollar is in America’s interest. We are going to make sure to pursue policies that improve the long-term fundamentals of the U.S. economy,” he said. Geithner also said there was “no evidence” foreign investors were losing interest in buy U.S. debt.
He also told CNBC there were signs the government’s efforts to support the economy and stabilize the financial sector were beginning to bear fruit, with the “pace of deterioration” slowing in some areas.
Geithner said in the interview that he was committed to putting the funds remaining in the Treasury $700 billion financial rescue program to work quickly and efficiently, and he held the door open to asking Congress for more.
“We always said this crisis may require more resources to deal with effectively, and we’re going to make sure we work with the Congress over time so that we can do this on a scale that is going to bring recovery back as soon as possible,” he said.
Geithner played down the idea that there was a sharp division between the United States and Europe over the amount of fiscal stimulus need to combat the global downturn.
“I think there is more commitment to a greater level of stimulus across the major economies than we’ve ever seen,” he said.
UNITED NATIONS (Reuters) – A new United Nations report released on Tuesday calls for abandoning the U.S. dollar as the main global reserve currency, saying it has been unable to safeguard value.
But several European officials attending a high-level meeting of the U.N. Economic and Social Council countered by saying that the market, not politicians, would determine what currencies countries would keep on hand for reserves.
“The dollar has proved not to be a stable store of value, which is a requisite for a stable reserve currency,” the U.N. World Economic and Social Survey 2010 said.
The report says that developing countries have been hit by the U.S. dollar’s loss of value in recent years.
“Motivated in part by needs for self-insurance against volatility in commodity markets and capital flows, many developing countries accumulated vast amounts of such (U.S. dollar) reserves during the 2000s,” it said.
The report supports replacing the dollar with the International Monetary Fund’s special drawing rights (SDRs), an international reserve asset that is used as a unit of payment on IMF loans and is made up of a basket of currencies.
“A new global reserve system could be created, one that no longer relies on the United States dollar as the single major reserve currency,” the U.N. report said.
The report said a new reserve system “must not be based on a single currency or even multiple national currencies but instead, should permit the emission of international liquidity — such as SDRs — to create a more stable global financial system.”
“Such emissions of international liquidity could also underpin the financing of investment in long-term sustainable development,” it said.
Jomo Kwame Sundaram, a Malaysian economist and the U.N. assistant secretary general for economic development, told a news conference that “there’s going to be resistance” to the idea.
“In the whole post-war period, we’ve essentially had a dollar-based system,” he said, adding that the gradual emission of SDRs could help countries phase out the dollar.
Nobel Prize-winning economist Joseph Stiglitz, who previously chaired a U.N. expert commission that considered ways of overhauling the global financial system, has advocated the creation of a new reserve currency system, possibly based on SDRs.
Russia and China have also supported the idea.
But Paavo Vayrynen, Finland’s Foreign Trade and Development Minister, told reporters that he doubted it was possible “to make any political or administrative decisions how to formulate the currency system in the world.”
“It is based on the markets,” he said. “I believe that the economic players in the market are going to have the decisive influence on that issue.”
European Union development commissioner Andris Piebalgs said it would be a bad idea to dictate what the reserve currency should be.
“It is markets that decide,” he said. “Any intervention would just create additional challenges and make things even less predictable.”
14:58if you’re looking ahead of the elections15:00do you think that the outcome of the15:01elections either way15:03would influence foreign policy going15:05forward and as a result15:07foreign countries decisions to hold more15:09or less gold15:11absolutely i mean we’re working on a15:13report right now15:15on the implications of the election for15:17for gold and precious metals15:19uh and you have like four different15:22scenarios on how things15:23shake out but definitely i mean you know15:26this15:27administration has um15:30excelled in its ability to reduce the us15:34stature around the world15:36and to create hostile relationships with15:39countries around the world15:41it’s had a negative effect on cpm group15:43because15:44there are people who don’t want to deal15:46with u.s companies15:49and and so i think a change in the15:51administration15:53while it wouldn’t be a 180 degrees turn15:55because15:56there are people in the democratic party15:58including joe biden15:59who will probably retake retain would16:02retain16:03some sort of hostile posture toward16:06china16:06it may be less hostile than the current16:09one and it may be less hostile toward16:11canada16:12and and other countries around the world16:15so you should see16:17if you saw a change in the16:18administration and a change in the16:20senate16:20you should see some improvement in the16:23u.s relations with16:25the rest of the world but there’s been a16:27tremendous amount of damage16:30done to the u.s stature globally16:34and it’s probably not going to get16:36changed by one16:37by a change of government for four years16:40do you think the us dollar then going16:42forward could lose its status as a de16:45facto reserve currency of the world16:47because you see another currency16:49challenging that status16:51as i said the part of the problem is16:53that the u.s owes the world so much16:55it owns it we have 62 percent of16:58monetary reserves17:01the u.s dollar will lose its stature17:04as the reserve currency in the future17:08the future may be 50 years from now and17:12it is it not it is reversible17:15this could not happen if the u.s17:18government got its act together but i17:19have17:20no hopes for that well if the u.s if the17:23u.s loses that status17:24who’s what’s going to take over who or17:26what well i was getting to that17:28as i said earlier most central banks in17:31the world17:32see as an ideal a multi-polar17:36international currency regime they17:38understand that it will take17:40decades to get there because of the17:42imbalance and liquidity between the17:44dollar and17:44all of the other currencies in the world17:47yeah17:4862 percent of their money of their forex17:51is in dollars that means that there’s17:53only 38 percent and everything else17:55they have to slowly make that transition17:58away17:59no government wants to see18:02its currency replace the dollar as the18:05reserve currency18:06what they’d like to see is a multi-polar18:09international currency regime18:11where people are free and companies and18:14governments are free18:15and there’s sufficient liquidity in18:17non-dollar currencies18:19that you can own and hold a portion of18:22your wealth18:24in those other currencies a greater18:26proportion of it18:27no one like if you talk to the chinese18:29central bankers if you talk to18:31other central bankers in around the18:34world18:34no one expects the dollar to disappear18:37as a18:38quote de facto reserve currency18:41but they‘d like to see it disappear as18:43the de facto current18:45reserve currency but they’re fully aware18:48that this is something that’s going to18:50take decades to execute18:52if it can be done okay you brought up18:55china i’m surprised to see that china18:57was relatively low on the list18:59when you’re talking about their19:00percentage of foreign reserves19:02in gold holdings it’s only four percent19:04of the foreign reserves in gold19:06are you surprised at how low that number19:08is19:09no um i’m not surprised i19:12i should ask you why you’re surprised19:14that it’s high19:15but you know china that should the19:18people’s bank of china for19:20decades had a view that gold was a small19:22and insignificant portion of its19:24monetary reserves19:26it changed that view in 2015 at a time19:29when it rolled out19:30a massive acceleration of19:33its efforts to make the rmb19:37more of an international currency it’s19:39still not you know fully convertible19:41but they expanded the daily trading19:43ranges and they expanded the longer term19:45trading ranges that they found19:47acceptable on the rmb19:49they started encouraging rmb19:52bonds offshore being issued offshore19:56and they said okay we’re adding some19:59gold to our reserves and we’re going to20:01continue to buy gold because20:02we see gold as a small but significant20:05part of our monetary reserve policy20:08going forward20:08now this was in 2015 and it’s very20:11important to understand that that was20:13after 2008 and 2009 when the u.s20:16treasury20:17basically stuffed everybody else and20:20protected20:21the bankers or the executives at the20:23banks uh20:24in the us and and so this was a direct20:27reaction20:28to the inappropriate behavior that the20:31us20:32treasury had during the financial the20:34global financial crisis20:36uh and and the chinese central bank20:39basically said we have to accelerate our20:41effort20:42to help move toward that multi-polar20:45currency20:46regime that we all would like to see in20:48the long run20:50uh and so they started adding their goal20:52if you go back to 201520:54they probably had about 1.1 1.3 percent20:58of their reserves in gold so the fact21:01that it’s up to four percent21:02and the fact that they have like three21:04trillion dollars of dollar reserve21:06of of foreign exchange reserves means21:08that it’s going to be a slow transition21:10as they add gold to it and as i said21:12they’re very price sensitive21:14they pulled out of buying gold for about21:1615 months a few years ago21:18then they came back and they were buying21:20but then they pulled back at the end of21:22201921:23and they haven’t reappeared they said21:25you know in the past they said21:27we’ll buy gold below a thousand when21:29gold went over a thousand they21:31didn’t buy any gold for several years21:33then they increased their threshold21:35and they knew they were buying uh and21:37then when the price started rising this21:39year they said no21:40you know we’re going to wait finally21:41jeff with everything that’s happened21:43this year and in particular with the um21:46central bank activity or slowdown of21:48central bank buying activity21:49do you think the run-up of gold prices21:52to two thousand dollars21:53all-time highs has made sense to you do21:55you think valuations are21:57correct as they should be right now yeah22:00i think they are22:01uh you know obviously the trend of the22:04next year or two is going to depend on22:06several things the outcome of the us22:08elections for the senate as well as the22:10presidency22:11brexit is coming up the pandemic which22:14is getting worse in europe now and is22:16expected to get much worse in the united22:18states22:18there are a lot of negative factors22:20there uh that fully support the idea of22:23a two thousand dollar22:24gold price now i wouldn’t be surprised22:27to see the price of gold22:28spike up higher on a short-term basis uh22:31then maybe plateau depending on what22:33happens politically22:35uh but we expect higher prices later22:37like22:382023 2025 because22:41none of these things are being solved22:43would you have a long-term price target22:45in mind22:47we’re looking at a gold price that is22:50very significantly higher than it is22:53today22:54all right perfect jeff jeff i want to22:57thank you so much for uh speaking with22:58me today that was a fascinating talk23:00thank you for your time thank you for23:02your time23:03and thank you for watching kiko news23:05we’ll have much more coverage for you23:06at the denver gold form stay tuned23:34you
Jim Rickards, legendary gold expert, says soon 👉YOU MIGHT NOT BE ABLE TO BUY GOLD AT ANY PRICE!! 👈I reveal the insider information YOU NEED to understand Jim Rickards reasoning and determine if you should buy gold now or wait. And how gold could go to 100k an ounce!! Jim Rickards is the foremost expert on the price of gold, when he talks the markets listen and YOU SHOULD TOO. If you’ve followed his work you know Jim Rickards is one of the premier macro thinkers in the world. And if you don’t know who Jim Rickards is, you need discover his ideas RIGHT NOW. Understanding and listening to Jim Rickards now, could save and make you a lot of money in the future.
Jim Rickards is a heavy hitter in the world of macro economics and gold. He’s revered as one of the top thinkers in the country and he’s made some huge calls on the price of gold saying it can easily to to $10,000 to $50,000 an ounce. Jim Rickards comes to that conclusion in a very scientific manner. It’s really just about math.
In this Jim RIckards video I explain how he comes to those conclusions and then go on to reveal how the price of gold could actually go to $100,000 an ounce!! As shocking as it sounds its realistic, but you’ve got to watch the video to discover the details.
This is a must watch Jim Rickards video, I discuss the following:
1. How experts like Jim Rickards, Peter Schiff, and Jim Rogers think the dollar will crash.
2. You’ll discover the actually math behind how Jim Rickards comes to his 10k-50k gold price.
3. I reveal how, using Jim Rickards logic, the gold price could actually go to 100k and higher!
If you’re interested in the gold price or Jim Rickards you’re going to love this video!!
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