Seven virtues and the seven capital sins

A list of seven virtues that oppose the seven deadly sins appeared later in an epic poem titled Psychomachia, or Battle/Contest of the Soul. Written by Aurelius Clemens Prudentius, a Christian governor who died around AD 410, it entails the battle between good virtues and evil vices. The enormous popularity of this work in the Middle Ages helped to spread the concept of holy virtue throughout Europe.

After Pope Gregory I released his list of seven deadly sins in AD 590, the seven virtues became identified as chastitytemperancecharitydiligencepatiencekindness, and humility. Practicing them is said to protect one against temptation from the seven deadly sins.

Virtue Latin Gloss Sin Latin
Chastity Castitas Purityabstinence Lust Luxuria
Temperance Temperantia Humanityequanimity Gluttony Gula
Charity Caritas Willbenevolencegenerositysacrifice Greed Avaritia
Diligence Industria Persistenceeffortfulnessethics Sloth Acedia
Patience Patientia Forgivenessmercy Wrath Ira
Kindness Humanitas Satisfactioncompassion Envy Invidia
Humility Humilitas Braverymodestyreverence Pride Superbia
Additional sins: Deceit