The soldier, identified only as Soldier F, was on Thursday charged by prosecutors in Northern Ireland with two counts of murder and four counts of attempted murder for his alleged role in the 1972 Bloody Sunday killings in Londonderry.
Thirteen civilians were killed when British Army paratroopers opened fire on a civil rights march in Northern Ireland’s second-largest city, also known as Derry, in one of the bloodiest and most-contested episodes of the sectarian conflict known as the Troubles.
Yet news of the prosecution was met with dismay in London, where many lawmakers are deeply uncomfortable at the idea that former military and police personnel face the threat of legal action for alleged offenses committed decades ago in the heat of the conflict.
Defense Secretary Gavin Williamson said the government will pay Soldier F’s legal costs and pledged reforms to ensure former soldiers aren’t “unfairly treated” in investigations into Troubles-era deaths. The government has yet to publish firm proposals but ideas floated include a statute of limitations to limit prosecutions.
“Our serving and former personnel cannot live in constant fear of prosecution,” he said.
The charges represent the culmination of a fresh police investigation into Bloody Sunday triggered by a 12-year inquiry into the events of Jan. 30, 1972, that in 2010 concluded the victims posed no threat and the killings were unjustified.
For the past decade, on American campuses, history has been declining more rapidly than any other major, even as more and more students attend college.
Lee Bollinger, president of Columbia University and Geoffrey Stone, University of Chicago law professor and noted first amendment scholar, co-editors of The Free Speech Century (Oxford University Press, 2018), talk about American courts and free speech from Oliver Wendell Holmes’ 1919 Schenck vs United States opinion through today.
Triumphalism is the attitude or belief that a particular doctrine, religion, culture, or social system is superior to and should triumph over all others.
Triumphalism may both benefit and prove detrimental to the survival of a doctrine, culture, or social system. Dangers include:
- Impaired ability to judge the value or morality of the group’s actions;
- Cessation of creativity and innovation within the group;
- Blindness to other groups’ strengths and innovations;
- A tendency to over-reach against the group’s competitors, based on an inflated sense of the likelihood of triumph in conflict.
At the same time, triumphalism also provides impetus to proselytization, conquest and the general expansion of a group or doctrine.Many successful historical movements have worked from a triumphalist base. Examples include the Islamic conquests of the 7th century, European colonialism, and the concept of manifest destiny which helped the United States to dominance in North America.